John K. Reed earned B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in geology. He worked for several decades as a
professional geologist in industry and academia. In
1998, John became the geology editor of the Creation
Research Society Quarterly, and was subsequently
elected to the CRS Board of Directors. He has written
and edited numerous books and articles about creation
and natural history.
historical science is the epistemic equal of experimental
science in the sense of having equal confidence in their
conclusions because the experimental method allows a
reduction in subjective elements that forensic history does
not. Thus, we23 continue to assert that Adler24 provided
a superior basis for natural history as a mixed question,
incorporating truth from science, history, philosophy,
1. Reed, J.K., Modern geohistory: An assault on Christianity, not an innovative
compromise, Creation Research Society Quarterly 46( 3):201–216, 2010.
2. Whitcomb, J.C. and Morris, H.M., The Genesis Flood, Presbyterian and
Reformed Publishing Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1961.
3. Bartlett, J. and Holloway, E. (Eds.), Naturalism and its Alternatives in Scientific
Methodologies, Blyth Institute Press, Broken Arrow, OK, 2016.
4. Reed, J.K. and Klevberg, P., Carol Cleland’s case for historical science—part 1:
devaluing experimental science, J. Creation 31( 2): 103–109, 2017.
5. Cleland, C. E., Philosophical issues in natural history and its historiography; in:
Tucker, A. (Ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography ,
John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 44–62, 2011; p. 55.
6. Cleland, C.E., Common cause explanation and the search for the ‘smoking gun’;
in: Baker, V.R. (Ed.), Rethinking the Fabric of Geology, Geological Society of
America Special Paper 502, Boulder, CO, pp. 1–10, 2013; p. 7.
7. Cleland, ref. 5, p. 56.
8. Gitt, W., Without Excuse, Creation Book Publishers, Atlanta, GA, 2011.
9. Meyer, S.C., Darwin’s Doubt, HarperOne, New York, 2013.
10. Sanford, J.C., Genetic Entropy, 4th edn, FMS Publications, 2014.
11. Bailey, R.J. and Smith, D.G., Scaling in stratigraphic data series: implications
for practical stratigraphy, First Break 28( 1): 57–66, 2010.
12. Saddler, P.M., Sediment accumulation rates and the completeness of stratigraphic
sections, J. Geology 89:569–584, 1981.
13. Saddler, P.M., The influence of hiatuses on sediment accumulation rates,
GeoResearch Forum 5: 15–40, 1999.
14. Torrens, H.S., Some personal thoughts on stratigraphic precision in the twentieth
century; in: Oldroyd, D.R. (Ed.), The Earth Inside and Out: Some Major
Contributions to Geology in the Twentieth Century, Special Publication 192,
Geological Society, London, pp. 251–272, 2002.
15. Van Andel, T.H., Consider the incompleteness of the geological record, Nature 294:
16. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 7.
17. Cleland, ref. 5, pp. 57–58.
18. Simpson, G.G., Uniformitarianism. An inquiry into principle, theory, and method
in geohistory and biohistory; in: Hecht, M.K. and Steere, W.C. (Eds.), Essays in
Evolution and Genetics, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Ne w York, pp. 43–96, 1970.
19. Chamberlin, T.C., Historical essay—the method of multiple working hypotheses,
by T.C. Chamberlin with an introduction by D.C. Raup, J. Geology 103:349–354,
20. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 6.
21. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 4.
22. Reed, J.K. and Klevberg, P., Beyond ‘origin’ and ‘operation’ science, part I:
critique of OS2, Creation Research Society Quarterly 50( 4):237–251, 2014.
23. Reed, J.K. and Klevberg. P., Beyond ‘origin’ and ‘operation’ science, part II:
an alternative, Creation Research Society Quarterly 51( 1): 31–39, 2014.
24. Adler, M. J., The Conditions of Philosophy, Athenaeum Press, New York, 1965.
25. Turner, D., Historical geology: methodology and metaphysics; in: Baker, V.R.
(Ed.), Rethinking the Fabric of Geology, Geological Society of America Special
Paper 502, Boulder, CO, pp. 11–18, 2013; p. 13.
26. Reed, J.K., Natural History in the Christian Worldview, Creation Research
Society books, Chino Valley, AZ, 2001.
27. Reed, J.K., Klevberg, P., Bennett, C.B., Froede Jr., C.R., Akridge, A.J., and Lott,
T.L., Beyond scientific creationism, Creation Research Society Quarterly 41( 3):
Peter Klevberg obtained a Bachelor of Science
in Engineering Science from Montana College of
Mineral Science and Technology in 1988. He is a
registered Civil Engineer in 6 states. He has worked in
precious metals and industrial mineral exploration and
development as well as in geotechnical, environmental
and hydrogeological consulting.
28. An exception is found in Kravitz, G., The thermodynamics time arrow and the
logical function of the uniformity principle in geohistorical explanation; in:
Baker, V.R. (Ed.), Rethinking the Fabric of Geology, Geological Society of
America Special Paper 502, Boulder, CO, pp. 19–40, 2013.
29. Reed, J.K., Demythologizing uniformitarian history, Creation Research Society
Quarterly 35( 3):156–165, 1998.
30. Reed, J.K., St. Hutton’s hagiography, J. Creation 22( 2): 121–127, 2008.
31. Gould, S.J., Time’s Arrow, Time’s Cycle: Myth and metaphor in the discovery
of geological time, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997.
32. Cleland, ref. 5, pp. 58–59.
33. Baker, V.R., The Spokane flood controversy and the Martian outflow channels,
Science 202:1249–1256, 1978.
34. Vine, F.J. and Matthe ws, D.H., Magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges, Nature 199:
35. Agocs, W.B, Meyerhoff, A.A., and Karoly, K., Reykjanes Ridge: quantitative
determinations from magnetic anomalies; in: Chatterjee, S. and Hotton III,
N. (Eds.), New Concepts in Global Tectonics, Texas Tech University Press,
Lubbock, TX, pp. 221–238, 1992.
36. Reed, J.K., Changing paradigms in stratigraphy—‘a quite different way of
analyzing the record’, J. Creation 30( 1): 83–88. Reed, J.K. and Oard, M.J., Not
enough rocks: the sedimentary record and Earth’s past, J. Creation 31( 2): 84–93,
37. Ager, D.V., The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1973.
38. Van Andel, ref. 15, p. 397.
39. Bailey and Smith, ref. 11, p. 64.
40. Kuhn, T., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, IL, 1962.
41. Rudwick, M.J.S., Bursting the Limits of Time: The reconstruction of geohistory
in the age of revolution, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2005.
42. Reed, J.K. and Oard., M.J., Beware the ‘best-in-field’ fallacy, Creation Research
Society Quarterly 47( 2):169–170, 2010.
43. MacBeth, N., Darwin Retried, Gambit, Ipswich, MA, p. 78, 1971.
44. Reed, J.K., Historiography and natural history, Creation Research Society
Quarterly 37( 3):160–175, 2000.
45. Stark, R., The Victory of Reason: How Christianity led to freedom, capitalism,
and Western success, Random House, New York, 2005 and How the West Won:
The neglected story of the triumph of modernity, ISI Books, Wilmington, DE,