13. Bourriau, ref. 12, p. 190. See also Bietak, M. and Höflmayer, F., Introduction:
High and low chronology, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften, Austria, pp. 13–23, 2007.
14. Rohl, ref. 1, pp. 281–284. Or perhaps another pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty.
Whatever, the 13th Dynasty remains a mystery to a considerable extent.
15. Waddell, W.G. (transl.), Manetho, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA, p. 79, 1940.
16. Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. I, University of California,
Berkeley, p. 150, 1975.
17. See the discussion of this ‘natural phenomena’ view in Currid, J.D., Ancient
Egypt and the Old Testament, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI, pp. 104–107, 1997.
Currid then continues to discuss the more recent position of critical scholars that
the plague narratives are merely ‘literary creations’, pp. 107–108. Kitchen, K.A.,
A Ramesside Exodus adherent, in his Pharaoh Triumphant, Aris & Phillips,
Warminster, p. 71, 1982, declares: “The plagues and losses of the (Exodus) year
quickly became just an unpleasant memory to be pushed out of mind, and any
lesson they taught was soon lost.”
18. Yurco, F.J., Merenptah’s Canaanite Campaign, The Journal of the American
Research Center in Egypt (JARCE) 23:189–215, 1986. See also idem, Yurco,
F.J., 3,200-year-old picture of Israelites found in Egypt, Biblical Archaeology
Review (BAR) 16( 5): 20–38, 1990; p. 34; then the challenge by Rainey, A.F.,
with a reply by Yurco, BAR 17( 6): 56–61, 1991.
19. Note how both Rainey and Yurco (respectively) note, and try to explain, the
problem this poses for the conventional chronology, Rainey and Yurco, pp. 59, 61.
The first attested mention of chariots as part of Israel’s military force we find
in 1 Kings 1: 5 and 4: 26.
20. Cf. discussions in Adamthwaite, ref. 2, pp. 82–84.
21. For example see Aling, C.F., Egypt and Bible History, Baker, Grand Rapids,
MI, p. 89, 1981.
22. See Aharoni, Y., The Land of the Bible, rev. edn, Burns and Oates, London,
pp. 169–176, 1979.
23. While for Aharoni the Conquest begins only after the Amarna period, he sees
the Habiru/‘Apiru penetration during the Amarna period as an earlier arrival of
certain Hebrew tribes in a ‘split-Exodus’ scenario, Aharoni, ref. 22, p. 191.
24. See Wood, L., A Survey of Israel’s History, rev. edn by O’Brien, D., Zondervan,
Grand Rapids, MI, pp. 82–84, 1986; Archer, G.L., A Survey of Old Testament
Introduction, Moody, Chicago MI, pp. 265–271, 1974. Note also in this respect
the discussion by Kline, M., The Habiru: kin or foe of Israel Westminster
Theological J. ( WThJ) XX: 60–68,1957.
25. See Adamthwaite, M., Lab’aya’s connection with Shechem Reassessed,
Abr-Nahrain 30: 1–19; pp. 8–12, 1992. Support for my reading of the relevant
lines in EA 289 came from Anson F. Rainey on a visit to Melbourne University
in 2002, when he gave a special lecture on the Amarna Letters, and EA 289 in
particular. Partial support for my thesis re Lab’ayu has come from a recently
recovered cuneiform inscribed cylinder from Beth-Shan; see Horowitz, W., The
Amarna age inscribed clay cylinder from Beth-Shean, Biblical Archaeologist 60:
26. A point also observed by Kline, ref. 24, p. 66.
27. This point will be developed more fully in a forthcoming article.
28. The literature on this issue is considerable, but see e.g. Greenberg, M., The Hab/
piru, American Oriental Series 39, New Haven, American Oriental Society,
1955; Kline, ref. 24, but also the earlier installments in W ThJ XIX: 1–24, 1956;
170–184; then of more recent vintage, Rowton, M.B., Dimorphic structure and
the problem of the ‘apirû-‘ibrīm’, J. Near Eastern Studies (JNES) 35: 13–20,
1976; Na’aman, N., Habiru and Hebrews: the transfer of a social term to the
literary sphere, JNES 45:271–288, 1986.
29. See the discussion by Kline, ref. 24, pp. 61–63, for an outline of the problems
involved in any sort of Habīru/Hebrew identification. My own view is that these
problems are not insuperable, but nevertheless full account needs to be taken of
the relevant difficulties.
30. See Knoppers, G.N., The historical study of the monarchy: developments and
detours, in Baker and Arnold, ref. 2, p. 215, and note 34.
31. As for example, in Bryce, T., Ancient Syria; A three thousand year history,
Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 332–334, 2014.
32. See Wilhelm, G., The Hurrians, Warminster, Aris & Phillips, p. 40, 1989, albeit
with some skepticism regarding Shalmaneser’s claims; Bryce, ref. 31, p. 83;
and also Bryce, T., The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press, New
York, pp. 303–304, 1998, where he notes Wilhelm’s scepticism, but still insists
that Shalmaneser wiped away what remained of the Mitanni kingdom.
33. See Adamthwaite, M., Ph.D. thesis, Late Hittite Emar, Louvain, Peeters,
pp. 16–25, 2001.
34. See Arnaud, D., Les textes d’Emar et le chronologie de la fin du Bronze Récent,
Syria 52: 89, 92, 1975. See also discussion in my thesis, ref. 33, pp. 3–4 and
notes 2 & 3.
35. Adamthwaite, ref. 33, p. 72.
36. Adamthwaite, ref. 33, pp. 261–272.
37. Adamthwaite, ref. 33, p. 75. See the entire chapter (part I, ch. 5) for
38. This concerns the discovery of the standard neo-Assyrian hilāni-palace, quite
out of chronological location, in Emar of ostensibly the Late Hittite period,
13th century BC. See Margueron, J., Un <<hilāni>> à Emar; in: Freedman,
D.N., Archaeological reports from the Tabqa Dam project, Annual of the
American Schools of Oriental Research 44:153–176, 1977. See also discussion
in Adamthwaite, ref. 33, pp. 201–203.
39. On this matter see my chapter, Aramaean Movements; in: Adamthwaite, ref. 33,
40. As also proposed in James, P., Centuries of Darkness, Pimlico, London, 1992.
Murray R. Adamthwaite graduated from Melbourne
University in 1997 with a Ph.D. in Near Eastern History
and Languages, and serves as sessional lecturer for the
Centre for Classics and Archaeology. He also is Tutor in
Old Testament with Tyndale College, Hunters Hill, NSW