25. Hippolytus literally speaks about appearing or coming into a new state of
being: γεγονέναι, from γίγνομαι.
26. Aristotle, History of the Animals, vol. 1 [LCL 438]. For a discussion of his
views, see Lennox, J.G., Aristotle’s Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the
origins of life science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 232–235,
27. Since Pasteur, the idea of biogenesis or reproduction has prevailed. In chemistry
and molecular biology the Latin saying Omne vivum ex vivo (all life is from
life) applies. Although evolutionists at a metaphysical level require at least
one event of abiogenesis, it is generally recognized that modern life does not
arise from non-living material. E.g. the formation of cells requires other cells.
28. Literally: common father and mother (πατέρα καὶ μητέρα κοινὸν).
29. Kočandrle, R. and Kleisner, K., Evolution born of moisture: analogies and
parallels between Anaximander’s ideas on Origin of Life and man and later pre-Darwinian and Darwinian evolutionary concepts, J. History of Biology 46( 1):
103–124, 2013; p. 117.
30. Kočandrle and Kleisner, ref. 29, p. 118.
31. Gregory, A., ref. 13, p. 48.
32. Aristotle called Anaximander a naturalist, literally someone who seeks the
explanation in the nature or material reality of things, e.g. Phys. III. 4, 203b14.
33. In a historical sketch added to the sixth edition of the Origin of Species,
Darwin admitted that his concept of chance was very different from the Greek
philosophy of Aristotle’s. Cf. Aristotle, Physicae Auscultationes II. 8. 2. For a
fuller consideration of Aristotle’s views on chance, see Dudley, J., Aristotle’s
Concept of Chance: Accidents, cause, necessity, and determinism, State
University of New York Press, Albany, 2011.
34. Mansfeld, J., Anaximander’s fragment: another attempt, Phronesis 56( 1): 1–32,
2011; p. 8.
35. Hölscher, U., Anaximander und die Anfänge der Philosophie, Hermes 81( 3):
257–277, 1953; p. 271–272.
36. Matson, W. I., The naturalism of Anaximander, The Review of Metaphysics 6( 3):
387–395, 1953; p. 395.
37. Naddaf, G., On the origin of Anaximander’s cosmological model, J. History
of Ideas ( 59. 1): 1–28, 1998; p. 28.
38. Original: safety.
39. Loenen, J.H., Was Anaximander an evolutionist? Mnemosyne 7( 3):215–232,
1954; pp. 231–232.
40. Aristotle, Met. 1.984a.
41. Diogenes, L., Lives of Eminent Philosophers VIII. 2.29: βουλόμενον τὴν περὶ
αὑτοῦ φήμην βεβαιῶσαι ὅτι γεγόνοι θεός.
42. See Diogenes, L., Lives VIII. 2.11–12: φάρμακα δ᾽ ὅσσα γεγᾶσι κακῶν καὶ
γήραος ἄλκαρ πεύσῃ, ἐπεὶ μούνῳ σοὶ ἐγὼ κρανέω τάδε πάντα. παύσεις δ᾽
ἀκαμάτων ἀνέμων μένος, οἵ τ᾽ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ὀρνύμενοι πνοιαῖσι καταφθινύθουσιν
ἄρουραν: 11 καὶ πάλιν, ἢν ἐθέλῃσθα, παλίντιτα πνεύματ᾽ ἐπάξεις: θήσεις δ᾽
ἐξ ὄμβροιο κελαινοῦ καίριον αὐχμὸν ἀνθρώποις, θήσεις δὲ καὶ ἐξ αὐχμοῖο
θερείου ῥεύματα δενδρεόθρεπτα, τά τ᾽ αἰθέρι ναιήσονται, ἄξεις δ᾽ ἐξ Ἀΐδαο
καταφθιμένου μένος ἀνδρός.
43. Diogenes, L., Lives VIII. 2.15: ἐγὼ δ᾽ ὑμῖν θεὸς ἄμβροτος, οὐκέτι θνητὸς
πωλεῦμαι μετὰ πᾶσι τετιμένος, ὥσπερ ἔοικα, ταινίαις τε περίστεπτος στέφεσίν
τε θαλείοις: τοῖσιν ἅμ᾽ <εὖτ᾽> ἂν ἵκωμαι ἐς ἄστεα τηλεθάοντα, ἀνδράσιν ἠδὲ
γυναιξί, σεβίζομαι: οἱ δ᾽ ἅμ᾽ ἕπονται μυρίοι, ἐξερέοντες ὅπῃ πρὸς κέρδος
ἀταρπός: οἱ μὲν μαντοσυνέων κεχρημένοι, οἱ δ᾽ ἐπὶ νούσων παντοίων ἐπύθοντο
κλύειν εὐηκέα βάξιν.
44. Empedocles, Fragment 132 ( Translation John Burnett, Early Greek Philosophy,
3rd edn, A & C Black, London, 1920; section 105, cf. https://en.wikisource.org/
45. Empedocles, Fragment 23 from Simplicius In Phys. 159.27; Greek text in:
Empedocles, the extant Fragments, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981,
pp. 101–102 (English translation: Burnett, see previous note.)
46. Empedocles, Fragment 17.
47. Empedocles, Fragment 35–36.
48. Empedocles, Fragments 57, 60, 61.
49. Empedocles, Fragment 58.
50. Empedocles, Fragment 59.
51. Aristotle, Physics, LCL 228:170-171.
52. The Museum of Palaeontology at the University of California points out that
there are major differences between Empedocles and Darwinism. “There are,
however, major differences between Empedocles’s ideas and natural selection
in the modern sense: Empedocles conceived of his ‘natural selection’ as a
past event, not as an ongoing process. Once again, we do not know whether
Empedocles had actually found supporting evidence for his theories.” See
ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/ancient.html, retrieved 24 November 2017.
53. ‘Divinely guided’ is used in the Greek polytheistic sense,
54. Several building blocks of the pagan Greeks have been likewise applied by
medieval and Renaissance Christian scholars, but it would be a logical fallacy
to conclude these scientists were guilty of pagan thinking for that reason.
55. Evolutionary theory shares elements of post-Socratic secularist and naturalist
philosophies, like those of Epicurus and Marcus Aurelius, but this does not
make these authors precursors of Darwinism.
Benno Alexander Zuiddam D.Th. (Church History)
Ph.D. (Greek) studied at four universities in Europe and
South Africa. He is research professor (extraordinary
associate) with the Faculty of Theology of North West
University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. He also serves
with Greenwich School of Theology (UK) and the Centre
for Patristic Research (Free University Amsterdam/
University Tilburg). Prof. Zuiddam has published in
a great variety of peer-reviewed journals, including
international publications in the fields of Greek and Old
Testament Studies. He also authored an in-depth study
on the authority of the Scriptures in the early church,
as well as an introduction to the history of the Western
Church. His research focuses on divine revelation in
early Christian and biblical literature and the Greco-Roman world, but he also takes a professional interest
in theological liberalism, particularly in the 19th century.
In 2014 Prof Zuiddam was elected member of the South
African Academy for Science and Arts.