18. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 131.
19. Crisafulli, C.M., Swanson, F.J., and Dale, V.H., Overview of Ecological
Responses to the Eruption of Mount St Helens:1980–2005; in: Dale, Swanson,
and Crisafulli, ref. 1, p. 289.
20. Edwards, J.S., Arthropods as pioneers: recolonization of the blast zone on
Mt. St Helens, Northwest Environmental J. 2: 65, 1986.
21. Dale, Swanson, and Crisafulli, ref. 1, p. 7.
22. Crisafulli, Swanson, and Dale, ref. 19, pp. 295–296.
23. Edwards, J.S., Crawford, R. L., Sugg, P.M., and Peterson, M.A., Recolonization
of the Blast Zone of Mount St Helens; in: Keller, S.A.C. (Ed.), Mount St
Helens—Five Years Later, Eastern Washington University Press, Cheney, WA,
p. 329, 1986.
24. Coad, B.R., Insects captured by airplane are found at surprising heights,
Yearbook of Agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1931), pp. 320–323.
25. Hardy, A.C. and Milne, P.S., Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial
currents: Experiments in aerial tow netting from kites, J. Animal Ecology 7:
26. Crawford, R.L., Mount St Helens and spider biogeography, Proceedings of the
Washington State Entomological Society 46:700–702, 1985.
27. Edwards, Crawford, Sugg and Peterson, ref. 23, p. 332.
28. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 129.
29. Frenzen, P.M. and Crisafulli, C.M., Biological responses to the 1980 eruptions of
Mount St Helens (information sheet provided by the Mount St Helens National
Volcanic Monument, 1990), p. 6.
30. Primary succession is the gradual development of living communities on sites,
such as volcanic deposits, having no biological legacies.
31. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, pp. 127–138.
32. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 133.
33. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 128.
34. Swan, L. W., Aeolian zone, Science 140: 77–78, 1963.
35. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 138.
36. Paramenter, R.R., Crisafulli, C.M., Korbe, N.C., Parsons, G.L., Kreutzian, M. J.,
and MacMahon, J.A., Posteruption arthropod succession on the Mount St Helens
volcano: The ground-dwelling beetle fauna (coleoptera); in: Dale, Swanson, and
Crisafulli, ref. 1, pp. 139–150.
37. Engle, M.S., Nitrogen and Microbial Colonization of Volcanic Debris on Mount
St Helens, Masters Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 1983.
38. Newly deposited volcanic rock contains phosphorus, but a period of weathering
is required for it to become available to plants.
39. Nuhn, W. W., Soil Genesis on the 1980 pyroclastic flow of Mount St Helens,
Master’s thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 1987.
40. Edwards and Sugg, ref. 15, p. 136.
41. Bishop, J.G., Fagan, W.F., Schade, J.D., and Crisafulli, C.M., Causes and
consequences of herbivory on prairie lupine (Lupinus Lepidus) in early primary
succession; in: Dale, Swanson, and Crisafulli, ref. 1, pp. 151–161.
42. Bishop, Fagan, Schade, and Crisafulli, ref. 41, p. 153.
43. Carson, R., Mount St Helens: The Eruption and Recovery of a Volcano, Sasquatch
Books, Seattle, WA, 1990, p. 94.
44. Bishop et al., ref. 41, p. 152.
45. A keystone species is an organism that plays a unique and critical role in the
functioning of an ecosystem.
46. Bishop et al., ref. 41, p. 155.
47. Bishop et al., ref. 41, p. 161.
48. Species include Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis), pearly everlasting (Anaphalis
margaritaceae) and fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium).
49. Personal communication, John Bishop, 22 July 2017.
50. Franklin, J.F., MacMahon, J.A., Swanson, F.J., and Sedell, J.R., Ecosystem
responses to the eruption of Mount St Helens, National Geographic Research 1:
51. Sloniker, E.V., The Fire Below Us, Global Net Productions, Camano Island,
WA, 1995 (videocassette).
52. Adams, A. B. and Leffler, S., Insect recolonization of the northwest sector of the
Mount St Helens blast zone; in: Keller, S.A.C., ref. 23, p. 307.
53. ‘Resilience’ is the ability of an ecosystem to recover from disturbance.
54. Edwards, ref. 20, p. 64.
55. Crisafulli, C.M., Swanson, F.J., Halvorson, J.J., and Clarkson, B.D., Volcano
ecology: disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities;
in: Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B., McNutt, S., Rymer, H., and Stix, J., (Eds.),
Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, 2nd edn, Elsevier Publishing, chap. 73, p. 1266, 2015.
56. Thornton, I. W.B., The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996.
57. Lindroth, C.H., Anderson, H., Bodvardsson, H., and Richter, S.H., Surtsey
Iceland. The Development of a New Fauna, 1963–1970, Terrestrial Invertebrates,
Entomologica Scandinavica, Suppl. 5, Zoologiska Museet, Lund, Sweden, 1973.
58. Mazza, ref. 2, p. 3.
59. Crisafulli et al., ref. 55, p. 1268.
60. Carpenter, S.E., Trappe, J.M., and Ammirati Jr., J., Observations of fungal
succession in the Mount St, Helens devastation zone, Canadian J. Botany 65:
61. Mazza, ref. 2, pp. 1–2.
62. Migratory animals, such as Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus sp.) and neotropical
birds, travelled hundreds of kilometres to Mount St Helens.
63. Sarfati, J.D., The Genesis Account: A theological, historical, and scientific
commentary on Genesis 1–11, Creation Book Publishers, pp. 247, 248, 2015.
64. Oard, M.J., The Genesis Flood and Floating Log Mats: Solving Geological
Riddles (e-book), Creation Book Publishers, Powder Springs, GA, 2014.
65. (No author named) Pumice Rafting, Creation 35( 4): 59, 2013. (Based on: Pumice
rafting brings new life to reef, QUT Links alumni magazine 16( 1): 18, Autumn
66. Woodmorappe, J., Noah’s Ark: A Feasibility Study, Institute for Creation
Research, El Cajon, CA, 1996, p. 171.
67. Human dispersal was delayed over 100 years by the Tower of Babel events
(Genesis 11: 1–9).
Keith H. Swenson earned Bachelor of Science degrees
in Zoology and Premedical Studies from the University
of Idaho and an M.D. from Washington University in St.
Louis School of Medicine. He holds board certification
in Internal Medicine and Dermatology. Keith served as
President of Design Science Association in Portland,
Oregon, for 20 years and currently teaches courses
in biology and geology at Multnomah University, also
in Portland. He vividly recalls the eruption of Mount St
Helens in 1980 and has extensively researched the
biological responses to the eruption.