and fossil feature interpretations, and offer appropriately
objective means to adjudicate between secular identifications of a particular fossil as a feathered dinosaur and secular
identifications of the same particular fossil as not a feathered dinosaur.
In short, more concrete evidence such as feathers, femurs,
and acetabula, or more clear explanations of that evidence,
should help resolve disagreement over how to categorize
certain strange and extinct birds or bird-like creatures.
1. Sarfati, J. and Carter, R., Did dinosaurs evolve into birds? creation.com/
dinosaur-bird-evolution, 16 April 2015.
2. Thomas, B., Actual feathers on mystery fossil indicate ‘bird’, Acts & Facts
46( 5), 2017; icr.org.
3. Xu, X., You, H., and Han, F., An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and
the origin of Avialae, Nature 475(7357):465–470, 28 July 2011 | doi: 10.1038/
4. Lee, M.S.Y. and Worthy, T.H., Likelihood reinstates Archaeopteryx as a
primitive bird, Biology Letters, 26 October 2011 | doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0884.
5. Feduccia, A., Evidence from claw geometry indicating arboreal habits of
Archaeopteryx, Science 259(5096):790–793, 5 February 1993.
6. Videler, J.J., Stamhuis, E.J., and Povel, G.D.E., Leading-edge vortex lifts
swifts, Science 306(5703):1960–1962, 10 December 2004 | doi: 10.1126/
7. Czerkas, S.A. and Feduccia, A., Jurassic archosaur is a non-dinosaurian bird,
J. Ornithology 155( 4)841–851, October 2014 | doi: 10.1007/s10336-014-1098-9.
8. Researchers declassify dinosaurs as being the great-great-grandparents of
birds, phys.org 9 July 2014. Citing research in ref. 7.
9. Maryańska, T., Osmólska, H., and Wolsan, M., Avialan status for
Oviraptorosauria, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47( 1): 97–116, 2002.
10. Xiaotingia may be an even ‘older’ bird than Archaeopteryx, ‘dated’ to 155 Ma.
11. Reisdorf, A.G. and Wuttke, M., Re-evaluating Moodie’s opisthotonic-posture
hypothesis in fossil vertebrates Part I: Reptiles—the taphonomy of the bipedal
dinosaurs Compsognathus longipes and Juravenator starki from the Solnhofen
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and preservation of an alleged feathered dinosaur, J. Ornithology 153( 3):
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14. Feduccia, A., Lingham-Soliar, T., and Hinchliffe, J. R., Do feathered dinosaurs
exist? Testing the hypothesis on neontological and paleontological evidence,
J. Morphology 266( 2):125–166, 2005 | doi: 10.1002/jmor.10382.
15. Wile, J., More evidence against feathered dinosaurs, blog.drwile.com, 2
16. Lingham-Soliar, T., Microstructural tissue-engineering in the rachis and barbs
of bird feathers, Nature: Scientific Reports 7:45162, 2017 | doi: 10.1038/
17. Lingham-Soliar, T., Experiments on ostrich decomposition and opisthotonus
with implications for theropod dinosaurs, J. Zoology 300( 2):127–136, 2016
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18. Smithwick, F.M., Mayr, G., Saitta, E.G., Benton, M.J., and Vinther, J., On
the purported presence of fossilized collagen fibres in an ichthyosaur and
a theropod dinosaur, Palaeontology 60( 3):409-422, 2017 | doi: 10.1111/
19. Xu, X., Wang, K, Zhange, K. et al., A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the
Lower Cretaceous of China, Nature 484 (7392): 92–95, 2012. | doi: 10.1038/
20. Cited in: Gibbons, A., New feathered fossil brings dinosaurs and birds closer,
Science 274:720–721, 1996 | doi: 10.1126/science.274.5288.720.
Jonathan Sarfati has a Ph. D. in physical chemistry from
Victoria University, Wellington, NZ. He is the author of
the best-selling Refuting Evolution, Refuting Evolution 2
and Refuting Compromise, By Design, The Greatest
Hoax on Earth? and co-author of The Answers Book,
Christianity for Skeptics, and The Genesis Account. A
former New Zealand chess champion, he works full-
time for Creation Ministries International in Atlanta, USA.
Brian Thomas earned a Masters degree in biotechnology
in 1999 from Stephen F. Austin State University in
Texas. He taught biology and chemistry as an adjunct
professor, then later as an assistant professor at Dallas
area universities. He is the author of Dinosaurs and the
Bible and co-author of Creation Basics and Beyond and
Guide to Dinosaurs. Since 2008 he has contributed hun-
dreds of online science news and magazine articles as
the Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research
in Dallas, USA.
21. Quick, D.E. and Ruben, J.A., Cardio-pulmonary anatomy in theropod
dinosaurs: Implications from extant archosaurs, J. Morphology, 20 May 2009
| doi: 10.1002/jmor.10752.
22. Thomas, B., Fixed bird thigh nixes dino-to-bird development, Creation Science
Update, icr.org, 22 June 2009.
23. Sarfati, J., Bird breathing anatomy breaks dino-to-bird dogma, creation.com/
dino-thigh, 16 June 2009.
24. Christiansen, P. and Bonde, N., Axial and appendicular pneumaticity in
Archaeopteryx, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B
267:2501–2505, 2000 | doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1311.
25. Ruben, J.A., Jones, T.D., Geist, N.R., and Hillenius, W.J., Lung structure
and ventilation in theropod dinosaurs and early birds, Science 278(5341):
1267–1270, 1997 | doi: 10.1126/science.278.5341.1267.
26. Farmer, C.G. and Sanders, K., Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators,
Science 327(5963):338–340, 2010 | doi: 10.1126/science.1180219
27. Cieri, R. L. et al., New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory
system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs, PNAS
111( 48):17218–17223, 17 November 2014 | doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405088111.
28. Lead researcher Colleen Farmer, although an evolutionist, says: “The geometry
of these lungs, it is so weird. I don’t think any engineer would dream that up.”
Why lizards have bird breath: Iguanas evolved one-way lungs surprisingly
like those of birds, University of Utah scientists have found, unews.utah.edu,
17 November 2014.
29. Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J., and Norell, M.A., Feather quill knobs in
the dinosaur Velociraptor, Science 317(5845):1721, 2007 | doi: 10.1126/
30. Wellnhofer, P., Archaeopteryx: The Icon of Evolution, Verlag Dr. Friedrich
Pfeil, Munich, 2009.