I thank Jonathan Sarfati for his critical review of an
earlier draft of this manuscript as well as the efforts of two
1. An interesting brief history of these events can be found here: Campbell, C.L.
et al., North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive,
orthogonal clusters, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 109( 34):13865–13870, 2012.
2. Carter, R. W., Extensive mixing among Israelites and non-Israelites in biblical
history. J. Creation 31( 3): 112–118, 2017.
3. Hammer, M.F. et al., Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share
a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
(USA) 97( 12):6769–6774, 2000.
4. Nebel, A. et al., The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape
of the Middle East, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 69:1095–1112, 2001.
5. Kopelman, N. M. et al., Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry
intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations, BMC Genetics
10: 80, 2009.
6. Adams, S.M. et al., The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance:
paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula,
Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 83:725–736, 2008. Note that the haplotype names
reported in this paper (e.g. E3a and E3b) differ from those I reported in the text
(in this case, E1b1a and E1b1b). Revisions in haplotype names are constantly
occurring, so I strove for consistency. I chose not to use a recent convention of
naming haplogroups based on lineage-specific mutations (e.g. E-P147, which
defines haplogroup E1) because it would make it too difficult for the reader to
cross-check the references and discussion.
7. Nogueiro, I. et al., Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE
Portuguese Jewish communities, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol 141:373–381, 2010.
8. Mallik, S. et al., The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142
diverse populations, Nature 538:201–206, 2016.
9. Kumar, S., Stetcher, G., and Tamura, K., MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary
Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol. Biol. Evol. 33:1870–
10. For an example of a study performed on limited data, see Behar, D.M. et al.,
Multiple origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y chromosome evidence for both Near
Eastern and European ancestries, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 73:768–779, 2003.
11. Tofanelli, S. et al., Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as
diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration, Frontiers in Genetics
10, 2010 | doi:org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00384.
12. Rootsi, S. et al., Phylogenetic applications of whole Y-chromosome sequences
and the Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levites, Nature Communications
13. Thomas, M.G. et al., Founding mothers of Jewish communities: geographically
separated Jewish groups were independently founded by very few female
ancestors, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 70:1411–1420, 2002.
14. Thomas, M.G. et al., Origins of Old Testament priests, Nature 394:138–140,
15. Hammer, M.F. et al., Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and
unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood, Hum. Genet 126:707–717, 2009.
16. Spurdle, A.B. and Jenkins, T., The origins of the Lemba ‘black Jews’ of Southern
Africa: evidence from p12f2 and other Y-chromosome markers, Amer. J. Hum.
Genet. 59:1126–1133, 1996.
17. Thomas, M.G. et al., Y chromosomes traveling south: the Cohen Modal
Haplotype and the origins of the Lemba—the ‘black Jews of Southern Africa’,
Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 66:674–686, 2000.
18. Shen, P. et al., Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans
and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA
sequence variation, Hum. Mutation 24:248–260, 2004.
19. Behar, D.M. et al., The matrilineal ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: portrait of a
recent founder event, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 78 ( 3):487–497, 2006.
20. Feder, J. et al., Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA haplogroup distribution varies among
distinct subpopulations: lessons of population substructure in a closed group,
Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 15( 4):498–500, 2007.
21. Diroma, M.A. et al., Extraction and annotation of human mitochondrial genomes
from 1000 Genomes Whole Exome Sequencing data, BMC Genomics 15(Suppl 3):
22. Costa, M.D. et al., A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst
Ashkenazi maternal lineages, Nature Communications 4:2543, 2013.
23. Atzmon, G. et al., Abraham’s children in the genome era: major Jewish Diaspora
populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern
ancestry, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 86:850–859, 2010.
24. Campbell, C.L. et al., North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form
distinctive, orthogonal clusters, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 109( 34):13865–
25. Behar, D.M. et al., The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people, Nature
26. Moorjani, P. et al., The History of African gene flow into Southern Europeans,
Levantines, and Jews, PLoS Genet 7( 4):e1001373, 2011.
27. Lee H.S. et al., Ancestral origins and worldwide distribution of the prnp 200k
mutation causing familial Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Amer. J. Hum. Genet.
28. Ellis, N.A. et al., The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom Syndrome mutation blmAsh
is present in non-Jewish Americans of Spanish ancestry, Amer. J. Hum. Genet.
29. Need, A.C. et al., A genome-wide genetic signature of Jewish ancestry perfectly
separates individuals with and without full Jewish ancestry in a large random
sample of European Americans, Current Biology 10:R7, 2009.
30. Elhaik, E., In Search of the jüdische Typus: a proposed benchmark to test the
genetic basis of Jewishness challenges notions of ‘Jewish Biomarkers’, Frontiers
in Genetics 7(141), 2016 | doi: 10.1086/500307.
31. Elhaik, E., The missing link of Jewish European ancestry: contrasting the
Rhineland and the Khazarian hypotheses, Genome Biol. Evol. 5( 1): 61–74, 2012.
32. Venton, D., Highlight: Out of Khazaria—Evidence for ‘Jewish genome’ lacking,
Genome Biol. Evol. 5( 1): 75–76, 2012.
33. Koestler, A., The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and its heritage, Random
House, New York, 1976.
34. Behar, D.M. et al., No evidence from genome-wide data of a Khazar origin for
the Ashkenazi Jews, 41, 2013; Human Biology 85( 6):859–900, 2013.
35. Das, R. et al., Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient
Iranian lands of Ashkenaz, Genome Biol. Evol. 8( 4):1132–1149, 2016.
36. Flegontov, P. et al., Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS)
approach applied to human genetic history: a case study of Ashkenazi Jews,
Genome Biol. Evol. 8( 7):2259–2265, 2016.
37. For example, see Das, R. et al., Responding to an enquiry concerning the
Geographic Population Structure (GPS) approach and the origin of Ashkenazic
Jews—a reply to Flegontov et al., rxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1608/1608.02038.
38. Yang, N.N. et al., Contrasting patterns of nuclear and mtDNA diversity in Native
American populations, Annals Hum. Genet. 74:525–538, 2010.
39. See Sarfati, J., Genesis correctly predicts Y-Chromosome pattern: Jews and
Arabs shown to be descendants of one man! creation.com/jews, 1999.
40. Slatkin, M. and Racimo, F., Ancient DNA and human history, Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. (USA) 113( 23):6380–6387, 2016.
Robert Carter received his Bachelor of Science in
Applied Biology from the Georgia Institute of Technology
in 1992 and his Ph.D. in Coral Reef Ecology from the
University of Miami in 2003. He has studied the genetics
of fluorescent proteins in corals and sea anemones and
holds one patent on a particular fluorescent protein
gene. His current research involves looking for genetic
patterns in the human genome and the development
of a biblical model of human genetic history. He works
as a speaker and scientist at CMI-US.