Much ado is made of the channel fill yielding plant fossils
at the base and marine fossils at the top: “This is possible
only if the Redwall Limestone was above sea level for an
extended time and was later submerged.” 45 However, time
is only in the minds of uniformitarians; plant matter was
present in floodwaters. The interpretation of a river system
is a uniformitarian interpretation, no more and no less. If
the channels and their fills are from an ancient river, why
are there not breccia layers at all levels of the fill and not
just at the base? That suggests a single event of erosion and
The ‘karst’ at the top of the Redwall Limestone consists
of collapse features (sinkholes) that are filled with the
same sediments as found in the channels. There are also
caves found in the formation that might have formed after
sedimentation. The features are considered paleokarst, and
are believed to have formed over a long time in a subaerial
environment. However, such features can be produced by the
Flood, by hydrothermal flows or gas seeps. 46, 47 The area could
also have been briefly exposed above the floodwater in which
the so-called paleokarst features formed in a matter of days:
“It is likely that the rapidly accumulating Flood
sediments periodically emerged. The resultant
degassing and dewatering of waterlogged sediments,
along with the associated chemical changes, would
have developed a wide range of negative relief in a
matter of days.” 48
So, the observed features of the rock record, including
unconformities, can readily be explained by the Flood. Only the
Flood explains the lack of physical erosion within large-scale,
flat-laying strata—which is typical of the rock record. 49 In
either case, unconformities are significant. For uniformitarians,
they are convenient places to place the millions of years not
actually seen in the rocks. For creationists, they are indicators
of the hydraulic and tectonic environments of the Flood.
Unconformities represent erosional events in the rock
record. Uniformitarianism emphasizes the supposed time
duration of unconformities, and uses unconformities as
repositories of the deep time not recorded in strata. Diluvial
geology should instead focus on the mechanics of the actual
event, recognizing that the larger scale of extent and intensity
better defines the surfaces.
1. Walker, T., Unmasking a long-age icon, Creation 27( 1): 50–55, 2004.
2. Rudwick, M.J.S., Bursting the Limits of Time, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, IL, p. 169, 2005.
3. The ‘stratigraphic approach’ is more properly called the ‘time-stratigraphic
approach’, but is shortened for convenience.
4. Reed, J.K. and Oard, M.J., Not enough rocks: the sedimentary record and earth’s
past, J. Creation 31( 2): 84–93, 2017.
5. Barrell, J., Rhythms and the measurement of geologic time, Geological Society
of America Bulletin 28:745–904, 1917.
6. Ager, D.V., The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1973; Ager, D.V., The New Catastrophism, Cambridge University
7. Neuendorf, K.K.E., Mehl, Jr, J.P., and Jackson, J.A. (Eds.), Glossary of Geology,
5th edn, American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA, p. 648, 2005.
8. Miall, A.D., The valuation of unconformities, Earth-Science Reviews 163: 22–71,
9. Blackwelder, E., The valuation of unconformities, J. Geology 17:289–299, 1909.
10. Grabau, A. W., Principles of Stratigraphy, A.G. Seiler and Company, New York,
11. Levorson, A.I., Discovery thinking, American Association of Petroleum
Geologists Bulletin 27:887–928, 1943.
12. Wheeler, H.E., Time-stratigraphy, American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin 42:1047–1063, 1958.
13. Sloss, L.L., Krumbein, W.C., and Dapples, E.C., Integrated facies analysis;
in: Longwell, C.R. (Ed.), Sedimentary Facies in Geologic History, Geological
Society of America Memoir 39, pp. 91–124, 1949; Sloss, L.L., Sequences in the
cratonic interior of North America, Geological Society of America Bulletin 74:
14. Froede Jr, C.R., Akridge, A.J., and Reed, J.K., Can megasequences help define
biblical geology? J. Creation 29( 2): 16–25, 2015.
15. Miall, ref. 8, p. 23.
16. Childs, O.E., Correlation of stratigraphic units of North America—COSUNA,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 69( 2):173–180, 1985.
See also Salvador, A., Chronostratigraphic and geochronometric scales in
COSUNA stratigraphic correlation charts of the United States, American
Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 69( 2):181–189, 1985.
17. Reed, J.K., Changing Paradigms in Stratigraphy, Part II: Another ‘New
Uniformitarianism’? J. Creation 30( 1): 83–88, 2016.
18. Vail, P.R., Mitchum Jr, R.M, and S. Thompson, III, Seismic stratigraphy and
global changes of sea level, part four, Global cycles of relative changes of sea
level, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, pp. 83–98,
1977. Van Wagoner, J.C. et al., An overview of the fundamentals of sequence
stratigraphy and key definitions; in: Wilgus C.K. et al. (Eds.), Sea-level Changes:
an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists
Special Publication 42, pp. 39–45, 1988.
19. E.g. Froede Jr, C.R., Sequence stratigraphy and creation geology, Creation
Research Society Quarterly 31:138–147, 1994; Davison, G.E., The importance of
unconformity-bounded sequences in Flood stratigraphy, J. Creation 9:223–243,
1995; Bartlett, A.C., Sequence stratigraphy: value and controversy—for
whom? Creation Research Society Quarterly 34: 5–22, 1997; Klevberg, P.,
The philosophy of sequence stratigraphy, part III—application to sequence
stratigraphy, Creation Research Society Quarterly 37: 94–104, 2000.
20. Clarey, T., Summary of megasequences across North America and the global
Flood, icr.org/article/megasequences-north-america, accessed 12 October 2017.
Figure 9. Small double parabolic scour within the Redwall Limestone
(courtesy of Tom Vail)