smoking due to pursing the lips to draw in smoke alters how
the face looks.
As Landau wrote, the “human face is one of the most
fascinating of all images: powerful, purposeful, personal”. 34
Human facial expression requires integration of both the
skeleto-muscular and integumentary systems to effectively
The face is a highly effective and important means of human
communication involving the integrated function of numerous
organ systems and distinguishing humans from all other life
forms including our putative closest relatives, the chimps.
The orthodox Darwinian view is that chimps and humans
have a common ancestor, but scientists have not been able to
explain the many profound differences between them, including
the structure and function of the face. 35 The fact is, the human
face does not closely “resemble those of apes or any other
animal”. 36 Furthermore, the evolution of facial expression, as
with all social behaviour, is “fraught with just-soism”. 37
Foremost is Stuart Burgess who read and critiqued the entire
paper, and also Bryce Gaudian and MaryAnn Stuart, both
whom helped clarify several sections.
1. Burgess, S., Overdesign in the human being with a case study of facial
expressions, J. Creation 28( 1): 98–103, April, 2014.
2. McNeill, D., The Face, Little Brown and Company, Boston, MA, p. 43, 1998.
3. Grehan, J.R. and Schwartz, J. H., Evolution of the second orangutan: phylogeny
and biogeography of hominid origins, J. Biogeography 36( 10):1823–1844, 2009.
4. Trumble, A., A Brief History of the Smile, Basic Books, New York, pp. 50–56,
5. Cohen, M. Jr., Perspectives on the Face, Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY,
pp. 196–197, 2006,
6. Landau, T., About Faces: The evolution of the human face, Anchor Books/
Doubleday, New York, p. 6, 1989.
7. Burgess, ref. 1, pp. 98–99.
8. Landau, ref. 6, p. 88.
9. Liggett, J., The Human Face, Stein and Day, New York, p. 260, 1974.
10. Burrows, A.M., Waller, B.M. Parr, L.A., and Bonar, C.J., Muscles of facial
expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and
phylogenetic contexts, J. Anatomy 208:153–167. 2006.
11. Burgess, ref. 1, p. 98.
12. Liggett, ref. 9, p. 198.
13. Fridlund, A.J., Human Facial Expression: An Evolutionary View, Academic,
Press New York, pp. 48–49, 152–153,1994.
14. McAndrew, F., How Did the ‘Smile’ Become a Friendly Gesture in Humans?
Scientific American.https:// www.scientificamerican.com/.../how-did-the-smile-become-a-friendly-gesture, 1994.
15. Trumble, ref. 4, pp. 95, 118, 131.
16. Simonyan, K. and Horwitz, B., Laryngeal motor cortex and control of speech
in humans, Neuroscientist 17( 2):197–208, 2011; p. 197.
17. Darwin, C., The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, John Murray,
London, 1872; for example see pp. 50, 218, and 355.
18. Fridlund, ref. 13. p. 15.
19. Fridlund, ref. 13, p. 14.
20. Russell, J., Bachorowski, J., and Fernandez-Dols, J,. Facial and vocal expressions
of emotion, Annual Review of Psychology 54:329–49, 2003; p. 332; Fridlund,
ref. 13, pp. 14–17.
21. Fridlund, A.J., The new ethology of human facial expressions; in: Russell, J.
and José-Miguel Fernández-Dols (Eds.), The Psychology of Facial Expression,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 123, 1997.
22. Landau, ref. 6, p. 36.
23. Landau, ref. 6, p. 137.
24. Ekman, P. and Friesen, W.V., Facial Action Coding System Human Interaction
Laboratory, Dept. of Psychiatry, University of California Medical Centre, San
Francisco, Consulting Psychologists Press Inc., 577 College Avenue, Palo Alto,
CA, 1978 ; and Ekman, P. (Ed.), Emotion in the Human Face, 2nd edn, Cambridge
University Press, New York, 1982.
25. Cohen, ref. 5, pp. 198–201.
26. Cohen, ref. 5, pp. 198–199.
27. Rachael, E.J. Caldara, R., and Schyns, P., Internal representations reveal cultural
diversity in expectations of facial expressions of emotion, J. Experimental
Psychology: General 141( 1): 19–25, 2012.
28. Grafton, S.T., Woods, R., Mazziotta, J.C., and Phelps, M.E., Somatotopic
mapping of the primary motor cortex in humans: activation studies with
cerebral blood flow and positron emission tomography, J. Neurophysiology
66( 3):735–743, 1991.
29. Penfield, W. and Boldfrey, E., Somatic motor and sensory representation in the
cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation, Brain 60( 4):389–443,
30. Cohen, ref. 5, pp. 32–34.
31. McNeill, ref. 2, p. 4.
32. Bergman, J., Using facial angle to prove evolution and the human race hierarchy,
J. Creation 24( 3): 101–105, 2010.
33. Gerasimov, M.M., The Face Finder, J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA, 1971.
34. Landau, ref. 6, p. 1.
35. Cohen, ref. 5, p. 31.
36. McNeill, ref. 2, p. 18.
37. Stocks, A., How did the ‘smile’ become a friendly gesture in humans? Scientific
American, www.scientificamerican.com/.../how-did-the-smile-become-a-friendly-gesture, 2017.
Jerry Bergman has nine academic degrees, including 5
masters and two PhDs. His major areas of study for his
graduate work include anatomy and physiology, biology,
chemistry, and psychology. He has graduated from
Wayne State University in Detroit, Medical University
of Ohio in Toledo, University of Toledo and Bowling
Green State University. A prolific writer with over a
thousand publications to his credit, including 43 books
and monographs, Dr Bergman has taught biology,
microbiology, anatomy and physiology, chemistry,
biochemistry, geology, astronomy and psychology at
the college level. Now retired, he has taught at The
University of Toledo Medical College, The University
of Toledo, Bowling Green State University and other
schools for a total of close to 50 years.