1. Oard, M.J., Massive erosion of continents demonstrates Flood runoff,
Creation 35( 3): 44–47, 2013.
2. Oard, M. J., Surficial continental erosion places the Flood/post-Flood boundary
in the late Cenozoic. J. Creation 27( 2): 62–70, 2013.
3. There likely was significant continental erosion during Walker’s Zenithic
Phase at the peak of the Flood in shallow areas based on the research of
Baumgardner. But for simplicity, I will lump it all into the Recessive Stage.
See Baumgardner, J.R., Explaining the continental fossil-bearing sediment
record in terms of the Genesis Flood: insights from numerical modeling of
erosion, sediment transport, and deposition processes on a global scale; in:
Horstemeyer, M. (Ed), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference
on Creationism, Technical Symposium Sessions, Creation Science Fellowship,
Pittsburgh, PA, 2013.
4. Walker, T., A Biblical geological model; in; Walsh, R.E. (Ed.), Proceedings
of the Third International Conference on Creationism, Technical Symposium
Sessions, Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 581–592, 1994.
5. Oard, M.J., The origin of Grand Canyon Part IV: the great denudation,
Creation Research Society Quarterly 47( 1):146–157, 2010.
6. Schmidt, K.-H., The significance of scarp retreat for Cenozoic landform
evolution on the Colorado Plateau, USA, Earth Surface Processes and
Landforms 14: 93–105, 1989.
7. Oard, M.J., (ebook). A Grand Origin for Grand Canyon, Creation Research
Society, Chino Valley, AZ; crsbooks.org/index.php/ebooks/a-grand-origin-for-grand-canyon-downloadable-versions.html, 2014.
8. Oard, M. J., Devils Tower can be explained by floodwater runoff, J. Creation23( 2):
9. Oard, M. J. and Klevberg, P., The Green River Formation very likely did not
form in a postdiluvial lake, Answers Research J. 1: 99–108, 2008.
10. Ollier, C.D. and Marker, M.E., The Great Escarpment of Southern Africa,
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F. 54: 37–56, 1985.
11. Oard, M.J., Flood by Design: Receding water shapes the earth’s surface,
Master Books, Green Forest, AR, 2008.
12. Oard, M.J., (ebook). Earth’s Surface Shaped by Genesis Flood Runoff,
14. Hower, J.C. and Rimmer, S.M., Coal rank trends in the Central Appalachian
coalfield: Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky, Organic Geochemistry 17( 2):
15. Friedman, G.M. and Sanders, J.E., Time-temperature-burial significance of
Devonian anthracite implies former great (~ 6. 5 km) depth of burial of Catskill
Mountains, New York, Geology 10: 93–96, 1982
16. In using coal rank, I am assuming the present geothermal gradient in the rock,
which likely would have been quite different during Flood deposition. That
is why coal rank is a rough estimate.
17. Poag, C. W. and Sevon, W.D., A record of Appalachian denudation in postrift
Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the US middle Atlantic
continental margin. Geomorphology 2:119–157, 1989.
18. Oard, M. J., Origin of Appalachian geomorphology Part I: erosion by retreating
Floodwater and the formation of the continental margin, Creation Research
Society Quarterly 48( 1): 33–48, 2011.
19. Poag and Sevon, ref. 17, p. 119.
20. Poag, C.W., US middle Atlantic continental rise: provenance, dispersal,
and deposition of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments; in: Poag, C. W. and de
Graciansky, P.C. (Eds.), Geological Evolution of Atlantic Continental Rises,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 100–156, 1992.
21. Oard, M.J., Origin of Appalachian geomorphology Part II: surficial erosion
surfaces, Creation Research Society Quarterly 48( 2): 105–122, 2011.
22. Oard, M.J., Origin of Appalachian geomorphology Part III: channelized
erosion late in the Flood, Creation Research Society Quarterly 48( 4):329–351,
23. Lee, J., A survey of transverse drainages in the Susquehanna River basin,
Pennsylvania, Geomorphology 186: 50–67, 2013.
24. Yang, C.T., Sediment Transport Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1996.
25. Guillocheau, F., Rouby, D., Robin, C., Helm, C., Rolland, N., Le Carlier
de Veslud, C., and Braun, J., Quantification and causes of the terrigeneous
sediment budget at the scale of a continual margin: a new method applied to
the Namibia-Southwest African margin, Basin Research 24: 3–20, 2012.
26. The differential vertical motion is relative to the present continents and ocean
floors because we do not know whether just the ocean basins sank, just the
continents rose, or both changed elevation.
27. King, L.C., Wandering Continents and Spreading Sea Floors on an Expanding
Earth, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1983.
28. Heck, F.R., Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians, Geology 17:
29. Burke, K. and Gunnell, Y., The African Erosion Surface: A continental-scale
synthesis of geomorphology, tectonics, and environmental change over the
past 180 million years, Geological Society of America Memoir 201, Boulder,
30. Oard, M.J., The remarkable African planation surface, J. Creation 25( 1):
31. Crickmay, C.H., The Work of the River: A critical study of the central aspects
of geomorphology, American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, 1974.
32. Ollier, C.D. and Marker, M.E., The Great Escarpment of Southern Africa,
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F. 54: 37–56, 1985.
33. Matmon, A., Mushkin, A., Enzel, Y., Grodek, T., and the ASTER
Team, Erosion of a granite inselberg, Gross Spitzkoppe, Namib Desert,
Geomorphology 201: 52–59, 2013.
34. Twidale, C.R., Geomorphology, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1968.
35. Blatt, H., Determination of mean sediment thickness in the crust:
a sedimentologic method, GSA Bulletin 81:255–262, 1970.
36. Reed, J.K. and Oard, M. J., Three early arguments for deep time—part 3: the
‘geognostic pile’, J. Creation 26( 2): 100–109, 2012.
37. One can assume that at the peak of the Flood, the top layers would have been
unconsolidated sediments, becoming more consolidated with depth, resulting
in rapid erosion during Flood runoff.
38. Bally, A. W., Phanerozoic basins of North America; in: Bally, A. W. and Palmer
A. R. (Eds.), The Geology of North America—An overview, vol. A, Geological
Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 397–446, 1989.
Michael J. Oard has an M.S. in atmospheric science
from the University of Washington and is now retired
after working as a meteorologist with the US National
Weather Service in Montana for 30 years. He is the
author of Frozen in Time, Ancient Ice Ages or Gigantic
Submarine Landslides?, Flood by Design, Dinosaur
Challenges and Mysteries, and Exploring Geology
with Mr. Hibb. He serves on the board of the Creation