8. See, for instance, Koivisto, R.A., Stephen;s Speech: A Theology of Errors?
Grace Theological J. 8( 1): 101–114, 1987; MacArthur, J.F., The MacArthur
;e; Testament ;ommentary: Luke ;– 5, Moody Publishers, Chicago, IL,
p. 14, 2009.
9. Midrash Rabbah on Genesis, ref. 6. It would seem that Nahor was also the
surviving older brother and his family was in Haran in the region of Aram
Naharaim when Abraham sought a wife for Isaac.
10. The Judaica Press Complete Tanach with Rashi (in English and Hebrew),
translated by Rabbi A. J. Rosenberg, 1998, available at chabad.org.
11. Lightfoot, J., Hebrew and talmudical exercitations upon the Acts of the
Apostles; in: Rev. Pitman, J.D. (Ed.), The Whole Works of the ;ev; ;ohn
Lightfoot D.D., vol. xiii, London, chap. vii.iv, pp. 419–4421, 1823.
12. Meyer, H., On Acts 7: 4; in: Christie, P. and Crombie, F. (Trans. and Eds.),
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (from 6th German
edn), T. and T. Clark, Edinburgh, UK, 1880. Meyer references this view to
Johann David Michaelis; de chronol. Mos. post diluv. sec. 15.
13. In Galatians 2: 19 Christians are said to die to the La w, and in 1 Corinthians 15: 31
Paul says he dies daily.
14. Reill, P. H., The German Enlightenment and the Rise of Historicism, University
of California Press, Berkeley, CA, p. 83, 1975.
15. Koivisto, ;te;hen;s ;;eech, ref. 8.
16. Ussher, ref. 3, 58 and 63, pp. 21–25.
17. Bede: The ;eckoning of Time , Wallis, F. ( Trans.), Liverpool University Press,
Liverpool, UK, p. 165, 1999: “Terah at the age of seventy begat Abraham, and
lived thereafter 135 years. ; 2023 [AM] Abraham ; was 75 years old when
he left his native country at God;s command and went to the land of Canaan.”
18. Perkins, W., An exposition of the Symbole or Creed of the Apostles, printed
by John Legatt, printer to the University of Cambridge, UK, pp. 60–61, 1595,
“Some say there bee 3929. from the creation to Christes birth as Beroaldus:
some 3952 as Heirome and Bede: some 3960 as Luther and Io. Lucidus: some
3963 as Melancton in his Chronicle, and Functius: some 3970. As Bullinger
and Tremellius: some towards 4000. as Buntingas.” This was also noted by
Hall, D. W., A Brief Overvie w of the Exegesis of Genesis 1–11: Luther to Lyell;
in: Mortenson T. and Ury T.H. (Eds.), Coming to Grips with Genesis, Master
Books, Green Forest, AR, 2008.
19. Lightfoot, J. Acts of the Apostles, ref. 11.
20. Sarfati, J., The Genesis Account: A theological, historical, and scientific
commentary on Genesis ;;;;, Creation Book Publishers, pp. 685–703, 2015;
Sarfati, J., Biblical Chronogenealogies, J. Creation 17( 3): 14–18, 2003.
21. Hardy, C. and Carter, R., The biblical minimum and maximum age of the
earth, J. Creation 28( 2): 89–96, 2014. Cosner, L. and Carter., R., Textual
traditions and biblical chronology, J. Creation 29( 2): 99–105, 2015; Williams,
P., Some remarks preliminary to a biblical chronology, J. Creation 12( 1):
22. Bruce F.F., The New International Commentary on the New Testament: The
;ook of Acts, rev. edn, Eerdsman, Grand Rapids, MI, pp. 134–135, 1988. See
also Kahle, P.E., The Cairo Geniza, The Schweich Lectures of the British
Academy, Oxford University Press, London, UK, pp. 143–145, 1947.
23. Barr, J., Why the world was created in 4004 BC, Archbishop Ussher and
Biblical chronology, Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 67:
24. Midrash Rabbah on Genesis, ref. 6: “For Terah was seventy years old at
Abram;s birth, whilst Abram departed from Haran at the age of seventy-five;
hence Terah, whose age at death was two hundred and five, died sixty-five
years after this command, and yet it is narrated before.” Josephus, ref. 2: “For
Therrus begat Abraham at the age of 70 [;;;;;;;;;;;; hebdom;kosto]”. Sefer
ha Yashar, Parry, J.H. (Ed.), Parry and Company, Salt Lake City, UT, 1887,
Claimed 1st edn 1552 Naples, surviving printed edn from Venice 1625 CH
7.22: “and Terah was thirty-eight years old, and he begat Haran and Nahor”.
25. Bruce, ref. 22 and Kahle, ref. 22. Leaving aside political disputes, the SP
was in fact seen as an acceptable popular recension of the Hebrew Text in
26. Similarity between Stephen;s speech and the SP has been noted by some
scholars to the point where it is suggested that Stephen was in fact a Samaritan
(Anderson, R. T. and Giles, T., The Samaritan Pentateuch: An Introduction to
its ;rigin, ;istory and ;ignificance for ;iblical ;tudies, Society of Biblical
Literature, Atlanta, GA, 126–130, 2012; and Spiro, A., appendix v, Stephen;s
Samaritan Background; in: Munck, J. (Ed.), The Acts of the Apostles, The
Anchor Bible, Garden City, NY, pp. 285–300, 1967). More likely Stephen
was a Greek-speaking Jew. Bruce comments that such a link to Samaria is
not warranted, even though there are a number of places in Acts 7 that seem
to follow more closely the beliefs and texts of the Samaritans: for example,
mention of Abraham;s purchase of land in Shechem (Acts 7: 16), and inclusion
of the plural Fathers instead of Father in Acts 7: 32 (cf. Exodus 3.6: MT has
father, ;; ; ;;; versus SP fathers ;;;;;. The Greek Fathers, ;;;;;;;, pater;n
Nestle-Aland 28th edn) (see Bruce, ref. 22). These assertions, included in
Luke;s careful historical account, seem to be deliberate according to Koivisto,
and are probably a response to the accusation that Stephen was corrupting
the writing of Moses (Koivisto, ref. 8, Acts 6: 8–15).
27. Philo, On the Migration of Abraham, XXXII; in: Yonge, C.D., (Trans.), The
Works of ;hilo, Hendrickson, Peabody, MA, pp. 176–177, 270, 1992. See Bruce
ref. 22. Marshall also suggests Luke;s account was based upon a first-century
source that agreed with the SP, but is now lost. Marshall, L.H., Tyndale New
Testament Commentary, Acts, IVP, Leicester, UK, p. 135, 1996.
28. Fitzmyer, J. A., The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian Origins, W. B. Eerdmans,
Grand Rapids, MI, 7, 2000: “The Qumran biblical texts thus show that the
Greek translation in the LXX was not carelessly done but represents a different
text tradition, which is now known.”
29. Cohen, M., The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of
Textual Criticism; translated from ;a;ikrah ;;anachnu, (Eds., Uriel Simon,
Ha Machon L; Yahadut U;Machshava Bat-;;mananu and Dvir, Tel-Aviv, 1979.
30. Fitzmyer, ref. 28, p. 30. Davila ;8.4Q8h’, DJD12 61-64, as 4Q Genh-para is a
paraphrase of Genesis 12: 4–5.
31. Augustine City of God, ref. 7, NPNF, 16: 15.
32. Pett, P., Commentary on Acts 7: 4; in: Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible,
sourced at studylight.org. 2013.
33. From the Nestle-Aland 28th edn text, sourced from nestle-aland.com (and
same with Stephanus TR Editio Regia). Acts 7: 5 ESV: “Yet he gave him no
inheritance in it, not even a foot;s length, but promised to give it to him as a
possession and to his offspring after him, though he had no child.”
34. Genesis 23: 3–4—“Then Abraham rose from beside his dead wife and spoke
to the Hittites. He said, ;I am a foreigner and stranger among you. Sell me
some property for a burial site here so that I can bury my dead.;” But note
Stephen;s assertion that Abraham also purchased land in Shechem (Acts 7: 16).
35. Augustine City of God, ref. 7, NPNF, 16: 32.
36. Rabbi Jose ben Halafta ( Trans. Guggenheimer, H. W.), Seder Olam Rabbah:
The ;abbinic ;ie; of ;iblical ;hronology, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers,
Lanham, MD, p. 18, 1998.
37. Jubilees 12: 30–31; in: Charles, R.H., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of
the Old Testament, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1913.
38. Gill, Commentary on Acts 7: 4, An Exposition of the New Testament,
39. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 1. 6. 5., ref 2.
Andrew Sibley works as a meteorologist in the UK.
He has a B.Sc. (Hons.) and completed an M.Sc. in
Environmental Decision Making in 2003 with the Open
University; and finis;ed an ;.;;il. in t;eology at a U;
university in 2012, which looked at the science and
theology of Intelligent Design. He is an occasional
speaker and writer with the Creation Science Movement
;ased in ;orts;o;t;; ;ngland; and t;e a;t;or o;
Restoring the Ethics of Creation.