30. Collins, S., The geography of the cities of the plain, Biblical Research Bulletin
of The Academic J. Trinity Southwest University 2( 1): 1–17, 2002.
31. Byers, G., Tall el-Hammam 2008: A personal perspective, 2009,
perspective.aspx, accessed 19 April 2017.
32. Collins, ref. 30, p. 8.
33. Collins, S., Hamdan, K., Byers, G.A., Haroun, J., Aljarrah, H., McAllister,
S., Luddeni, M.C., abut-Shmais, A., and Dasouqi, A, The Tall El-Hammam
excavation project season activity report. Season Five: 2010 excavation,
exploration, and survey, Trinity Southwest University and Department of
Antiquities of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 2010.
34. The date of 3000 BC falls at the end of the Early Bronze I period in the Levant.
The Chalcolithic precedes the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age succeeds the
Bronze Age. These ages, developed by secular historians, are essentially
evolutionistic because they assume that humans first used stone and copper,
then moved on to bronze, and then eventually to iron. This does not agree with
the Bible, which states that Tubalcain was “an instructor of every artificer in
brass and iron” (Genesis 4: 22) in the early times before the Flood.
35. Collins et al., ref. 33, pp. 17–19.
36. Collins, S., Tall el-Hammam is still Sodom: critical data-sets cast serious
doubt on E.H. Merrill’s chronological analysis, Biblical Research Bulletin
of The Academic J. Trinity Southwest University 13( 1): 1–28, 2013; p. 8.
37. See, for example, the Shittim entry in Douglas, J.D. and Tenney, M.C.,
Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ;ondervan, Grand Rapids, MI, p.
38. Collins, ref. 30, pp. 5–6.
39. Israel (and autonomous areas), physical map, Carta, Jerusalem, Israel, 2008.
40. Strong, ref. 17, #3603.
41. Adamthwaite, M. R., has published a revie w of Discovering the City of Sodom:
The Fascinating, True Account of the Discovery of the Old Testament’s Most
Infamous City, by Collins, S. and Scott, L.C., Howard Books, New York,
2013, in J. Creation 30( 1): 33–36, 2016. He concludes that the Tall el-Hammam
cannot be Sodom.
42. Jampoler, A.C.A., ;ailors in the ;oly Land: The ;;;; American E;;edition
to the Dead Sea and the Search for Sodom and Gomorrah, Naval Institute
Press, Annapolis, MD, 2005.
43. Dumper, M. and Stanley, B.E., Cities of the Middle East and North Africa:
A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA, p. 141, 2007.
44. Archi, A., Are ‘The cities of the plain’ mentioned in the Ebla tablets? Cities
identified by Pettinato are nowhere near the Dead Sea, Biblical Archaeological
Revie w 7( 6): 54–55, 1981.
45. Roberts, J.J.M., The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Collected Essays,
Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, IN, pp. 12–14, 2002.
46. Chavalas, M. W., Assyriology and Biblical Studies: A century and a half of
tension; in: Chavalas, M. W. and Younger, K.L., Jr. (Eds.), Mesopotamia and
the Bible: Comparative Explorations, T & T Clark International, London and
New York, pp. 21–67, 2003.
47. The Early Bronze Age I is generally considered to be about 3300—3000 BC
(secular timeline) these days.
48. For example Oakes, L. and Gahlin, L., Ancient Egypt, Hermes House, Anness
Publishing Inc., New York, p. 46, 2002. Currently most scholars accept
approximately this date for Djoser, although Egyptian dates are always subject
to tweaking by somebody or other.
49. The reasons listed here for equating Joseph with Imhotep are taken from a
paper published by Habermehl, ref. 4, Part II. Further references for these
points are in that paper.
50. Oakes and Gahlin, ref. 48, p. 91.
51. Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, vol. 3: The
Late Period, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 94–100, 1980.
52. Asante, M.K., From Imhotep to Akhenaten: An Introduction to Egyptian
Philosophers, Menaubuc, Paris, France, p. 67, 2004.
53. Parsons, M., Heliopolis, Egypt’s Iunu, Tour Egypt, 2011, touregypt.net/
featurestories/ heliopolis.htm, accessed 19 April 2017.
54. Taylor, J.H., Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, The British Museum
Press, London, UK, p. 39, 2001.
55. Oakes and Gahlin, ref. 48, p. 46.
56. Jones, ref. 1, p. 278. The Jones chronology puts the children of Israel in Egypt
for 215 years, which I support. However, whether or not it was 215 years does
not affect where Abraham and Joseph go on the secular timeline—it only
changes the number of years between the secular and biblical timelines at
57. Jones, ref. 1, p. 278.
58. Secular scholars simply do not know for sure whether all the pharaohs of
these dynasties reigned in series or concurrently, and for how long, or even
whether some of these were pharaohs under different names. For example,
see Wilkinson, T.A.H., Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, London and New
York, pp. 55;91, 1999.
59. Tyldesley, J., The Pharaohs, Quercus Publishing Plc., London, UK, p. 22, 2009.
60. Raffaele, F., Dynasty 0, Aegyptiaca Helvetica, 17, pp. 99–141, 2003.
61. Porat, N., An Egyptian colony in southern Palestine during the Late
Predynastic/Early Dynastic Period; in: van den Brink, E.C.M. (Ed.), The Nile
Delta in Transition: ;th–3rd Millennium BC: Proceedings of the Seminar Held
in ;airo, ;;;;; ;ctober ;;;;, The ;etherlands Institute of Archaeology and
Arabic Studies, 1992.
62. Watrin, L., The relationship between the Nile Delta and Palestine during the
fourth millennium: From early exchange (Naqada I–II) to the colonization
of southern Palestine (Naqada III); in: Eyre, C.J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the
Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists, Uitgeverij Peeters, Leuven,
Belgium, pp. 1224–1226, 1998.
Anne Habermehl has been interested in creationism
and biblical apologetics since her teens. She has
published on topics such as the Egyptian timeline,
the search for Noah’s Ark, the location of the Tower of
Babel, the placement of the Ice Age in history, and who
the Neandertals were. Born in Canada, she has a B.Sc.
from the University of Waterloo (chemistry). She now
lives in the US.