13. Conder, C. R., The Survey of Eastern Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography,
Orography, Hydrography, Archaeology, Etc. vol. 1: The Adwan Country, The
Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, UK, p. 147, 1889.
14. Khouri, ref. 7, p. 115.
15. Collins, ref. 4, p. 9.
16. Thomson, W.M., The Land and the Book: Southern Palestine and Jerusalem,
Harper and Brothers, New York, pp. 371–376, 1882.
17. Tristram, H.B., The Land of Moab: Travels and discoveries on the east side
of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, Harper and Brothers, Publishers, New York,
pp. 346–347, 1873.
18. Josephus, F., The Wars of the Jews; in: The Works of Josephus, 1987 edn,
trans. Whiston, W.,. Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 4:8:452–454,
19. See, for example, Smith W., A Dictionary of the Bible, Zondervan Publishing
House, Grand Rapids, MI, p. 768, 1948.
20. Josephus, F., The Antiquities of the Jews; in: The Works of Josephus, 1987
edn, trans. Whiston, W., Hendrikson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 1:9:171, 1736.
21. Josephus, ref. 18, p. 482.
22. Josephus, ref. 18, p. 686, fn a.
23. Josephus, ref. 18, p. 484.
24. Moab and Ammon are part of what is the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan today,
and having been there, I can confirm that this territory is totally desolate.
25. The likelihood of this strip of land being barren is small, because it lies along
the river flats where normally the land is green and fertile. There are green
fields north of this strip, and also along the river on the opposite side, as we
26. Fraas, O., The sulphur of the valley of the Jordan; in: Warren, C. and Conder,
C.R. (Eds.), The Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem, Committee of the
Palestine Exploration Fund, London, UK, pp. 246–248, 1878.
27. For example, Tristram, H.B., Bible Places: Or, the Topography of the Holy
Land, Gorgias Press LLC, Piscataway, NJ, facsimile reprint of the 1884
edn published by The Gresham Press, Chilworth and London, England, pp.
28. I am doubtful that burning tar fell from the sky, although a survey of
commentary on Genesis 19: 24 will find various authors who claim this.
See Isaiah 34: 9, where ;pitch; and ;brimstone; (sulphur) are two different
words used in two different ways within the same verse. The Hebrew word
;gophriyth; in Genesis 19: 24 is usually translated ;brimstone; or ;sulphur;
(see Strong J., The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, Abingdon Press,
New York, and Nashville, TN, ;1614, 1894).
29. Jacobs, A.S., Remains of the Jews: The Holy Land and Christian Empire in
Late Antiquity, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA., p. 139, 2004.
30. Bitton, J., Dweck, N., and Fine, S., Yet another Jewish tombstone from late
antique ;oar/;oora: The funerary marker of Hannah daughter of Levi; in:
Lundberg, M.J., Fine, S., and Pitard, W. T. (Eds.), Puzzling Out the Past:
Studies in Northwest Semitic Languages and Literatures in Honor of Bruce
Zuckerman, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 7–12, 2012.
31. Kyle, M.G. and Albright, W.F., Results of the archaeological survey of the
Ghor in search for the cities of the plain, Bibliotheca Sacra 81:276–291, 1924.
32. Politis, K.D., Dealing with the dealers and tomb robbers: the realities of the
archaeology of the Ghor es-Safi in Jordan; in: Brodie, N. and Tubb, K.W.
(Eds.), Illicit Antiquities: The theft of culture and the extinction of archaeology,
Routledge, London, UK, and New York, pp. 257–267, 2002; p. 258.
33. Smith W., A Dictionary of the Bible, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand
Rapids, MI, p. 768, 1948.
34. Vives, L. (Ed.), Oeuvres Complete de Saint Jerome, Vol. III, V.P. Larousse et
Cie, Paris, France, pp. 483, 501, 1878.
35. Wildberger, H., Isaiah 13–27: A Continental Commentary, Fortress Press,
Minneapolis, MN, p.137, 1997.
36. Alexander, J. A., Commentary on Isaiah, Kregel Classics, Grand Rapids, MI,
pp. 316–317, 1992.
37. Morris, J., Have Sodom and Gomorrah been discovered? Acts & Facts 42( 4):
38. Wood, B.G., The discovery of the sin cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, Bible
& Spade 12( 3): 67–80, 1999.
39. Wood justifies the Bab Edh-Dhra southern location for Sodom by claiming
that Lot and Abraham most likely were not at Bethel/Ai when Lot made his
choice, but that Abraham and Lot wandered around before their separation.
Also, he says that Sodom was not along the Jordan River, but reinterprets what
‘the plain of Jordan’ means. This constitutes bending what Scripture clearly
says to fit a chosen location, as there is no indication in Scripture of any of
this. See Wood, B.G., Locating Sodom: A critique of the northern proposal,
Bible and Spade , 20( 3):78;84, 2007.
40. Austin, S., Origins: Sodom and Gomorrah, Part 1, with Dr Steve Austin,
Video, Cornerstone Television, Wall, PA, 2010.
41. Unger, M.F., Archaeology and the Old Testament, Zondervan Publishing
House, Grand Rapids, MI, pp. 114–115, 1954.
42. Sarna, N.M., Understanding Genesis, vol. 1 of the Melton Research Center
Series, The Heritage of Biblical Israel, Jewish Theological Seminary of
America, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, p. 140, 1966.
43. Rast, W.E. and Schaub, R. T., Survey of the southeastern plain of the Dead
Sea, 1973, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 19: 5–53, 1974.
44. Neev, D., and Emery, K.O., The Destruction of Sodom, Gomorrah, and
Jericho: Geological, Climatological, and Archaeological Background,
Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 130–134, 1995.
45. Neev and Emery, ref. 44, p. 62.
46. Sodom and Gomorrah, Ark Discovery International, 2014, w w.arkdiscovery.com/
sodom;&; gomorrah.htm, accessed 19 April 2017.
Anne Habermehl has been interested in creationism
and biblical apologetics since her teens. She has
published on topics such as the Egyptian timeline,
the search for Noah’s Ark, the location of the Tower of
Babel, the placement of the Ice Age in history, and who
the Neandertals were. Born in Canada, she has a B.Sc.
from the University of Waterloo (chemistry). She now
lives in the U.S.