often abridge this idea to the dualistic ‘origins’ and
‘operations’ science. But language is always critical to
thought, and so we encourage more careful use of language
and the re-evaluation of both science and history within the
worldview of the Bible.
1. Baker, V.R. (Ed.), Rethinking the Fabric of Geology, Geological Society of
America Special Paper 502, Boulder, CO, 2013.
2. Cleland, C.E., Historical science, experimental science, and the scientific
method, Geology 29( 11):987–990, 2001.
3. Cleland, C.E., Methodological and epistemic differences between historical
science and experimental science, Philosophy of Science 69:474–496, 2002.
4. Cleland, C.E., Philosophical issues in natural history and its historiography;
in: Tucker, A. (Ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of History and
Historiography, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 44–62, 2011.
5. Cleland, C. E., Prediction and explanation in historical natural science, British
J. Philosophy of Science 62:551–582, 2011.
6. Cleland, C.E., Common cause explanation and the search for the ;smoking
gun;, in: Baker, ref. 1, pp. 1–10.
7. As an aside, there is irony in Cleland;s case. Charles Lyell caught a 19th
century wave of scientific euphoria, and built uniformitarian natural history
as an extension of Newton’s physics, linking the two through his deceptive
‘uniformity principle’. He succeeded in riding Newton’s coat-tails to an
exalted height. Now that the positivist wave is receding, Cleland advances
a high view of geology by denigrating physics! See Laudan, R., From
Mineralogy to Geology: The foundations of a science, 1650–1830, University
of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1987.
8. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 1.
9. Adler, M.J., A Second Look in the Rearview Mirror, Macmillan, New York,
pp. 31–32, 1992.
10. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 45, brackets hers.
11. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 47.
12. Adler, M.J., The Conditions of Philosophy, Athenaeum Press, New York, p.
13. Glover, W., Biblical Origins of Modern Secular Culture, Mercer University
Press, Macon, GA, 1984.
14. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 2.
15. Popper, K., ;on;ectures and ;efutations: The gro;th of scientific kno;ledge ,
2nd edn, Harper & Row, New York, 1965.
16. Cleland, ref. 6, p. 3.
17. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 49.
18. Cleland, ref. 6, pp. 1–2.
19. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 51.
20. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 52.
21. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 54.
22. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 55.
23. Kuhn, T., The ;tructure of ;cientific ;evolutions, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, IL, 1962.
24. Cleland, ref. 4, p. 46.
25. Harrison, P., The Fall of Man and the Foundations of Science, Cambridge
University Press, 2007; reviewed by Weinberger, L., J. Creation 24( 3):
26. Horton, R., Offline: what is medical;s 5 sigma? The Lancet 385(9976):1380,
2015 ; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736( 15)60696-1.
27. Moran, A. (Ed.), Climate Change: The facts, Stockade Books, Woodsville,
28. Bergman, J., Slaughter of the Dissidents, Leafcutter Press, Green Forest, AR,
29. Ghosh, P., UCL says Tim Hunt will not be back after ;sexist; comments, bbc.
com, 26 June 2015.
30. The Economist, How science goes wrong, economist.com, 21 October 2013.
31. Adler, ref. 12, p. 303.
32. Reed, J.K. and Klevberg, P., Beyond “origin and operation” science, part II:
an alternative, Creation Research Society Quarterly 51( 1): 31–39, 2014.
33. Clark, G.H., Historiography: Secular and religious, The Trinity Foundation,
Jefferson, MD, 1994.
34. Reed, J.K., Historiography and natural history, Creation Research Society
Quarterly 37( 3):160–175, 1999.
35. Laudan, L., The demise of the demarcation problem; in: Cohen, R.S.
and Laudan, L. (Eds.), Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis, Reidel,
Dordrecht, 1983; reprinted in But Is It Science? Prometheus Books, New
York, pp. 337–350, 1996.
36. Bauer, H.H., ;cientific Literacy and the ;yth of the ;cientific ;ethod, Illini
Books, Urbana-Champaign, IL,1992.
37. Geisler, N.L., Is Man the Measure? An evaluation of contemporary humanism ,
Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1983.
38. Geisler, N.L. and Anderson, J.K., Origin Science: A proposal for the creation-
evolution controversy, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1987.
39. Thaxton, C. B., Bradley, W. L., and Olsen, R. L., The Mystery of Life’s Origin:
Reassessing current theories, Philosophical Library, New York, 1984.
40. Meyer, S.C., The demarcation of science and religion, discovery.org, 2000.
41. The Enlightenment to 20th century attitude of optimism in scientific truth as
the foundation of a new secular culture.
42. The recent (mid-20th century onwards) attitude of pessimism based on no
absolutes in truth, ethics, or human hope.
43. Rose, E. (Fr Seraphim), Nihilism: The root of the revolution of the modern
age, St. Herman Press, Platina, CA, 2009.
44. Angell, M., Drug companies and doctors: a story of corruption, New York
Review of Books, nybooks.com, 15 January 2009.
John K. Reed earned B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in geology. He worked for several decades as a
professional geologist in industry and academia. In
1998, John became the geology editor of the Creation
Research Society Quarterly, and was subsequently
elected to the CRS Board of Directors. He has written
and edited numerous books and articles about creation
and natural history.
Peter Klevberg obtained a Bachelor of Science in
Engineering Science from Montana College of Mineral
Science and Technology in 1988, and is a registered
Civil Engineer. Peter is a PE registered in 6 states. He
has worked in precious metals and industrial mineral
exploration and development as well as in geotechnical,
environmental and hydrogeological consulting.