If meteorite impacts broke open
underground reservoirs, 13, 14 it could
have caused a massive flood. The fact
that Aram Chaos is found inside an
impact crater adds credibility to this
hypothesis. An alternative possibility
is that the heat of an impact melted
ground ice. Meteorite impacts could
also explain the evidence for precipitation and glaciers as produced by
water vapour from impacts.
Timing of the floods
The impact idea is not popular.
One reason why this uniformitarian
proposal falls short is that they spread
the thousands of Martian impacts over
hundreds of millions or even billions
of years. There are several planetary
scientists who try to focus a large
number into more specific time periods
so they would produce more powerful
Spreading the time out to billions
of years means each flood would be
isolated and mediocre. However, if
they came all at once, at the same time
as the Genesis Flood on Earth, 15, 16 a
huge number of impacts would fall in
quick succession. The bombardment
would cause a great amount of heat
to rapidly pass into the subsurface. It
would be the right order of magnitude
to release a prodigious amount of
underground water. With such a
meteorite bombardment, the crater-
counting dates proposed by secular
scientists would become virtually
meaningless, since by chance some
areas would have many impacts,
dated ‘old’, and some areas with few
impacts, dated ‘young’. Meteorite
bombardment over a short period of
time would be a much more powerful
mechanism for the release of ground
water and precipitation than the
isolated impacts proposed by secular
1. Baker, V.R., Water and the martial landscape,
Nature 412:228–236, 2001.
2. Carr, M.H., The fluvial history of Mars,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
A 370:2193–2215, 2012.
3. Sarfati, J., Mars: the red planet, Creation
32( 2): 38–41, 2010; creation.com/mars-red-planet.
4. Roda, M., Kleinhans, M.G., Zegers, T.E.,
and Oosthoek, J.H.P., Catastrophic ice lake
collapse in Aram Chaos, Mars, Icarus 236:
5. Hubbard, B., Milliken, R.E., Kargel, J.S.,
Limaye, A., and Souness, C., Geomorphological
characterisation and interpretation of a mid-latitude glacial-like form: Hellas Planitia, Mars,
Icarus 211:330–346, 2011.
Figure 2. Mars Pathfinder photo of region where Ares ;allis borders Chryse showing flood debris (;ASA;JP;;
6. Oard, M.J., The Missoula Flood Controversy
and the Genesis Flood, Creation Research
Society Books, Chino Valley, AZ, 2004.
7. Komatsu, G. and Baker, V.R., Paleohydrology
and flood geomorphology of Ares Vallis,
J. Geophysical Research 102(E2):4151–4160,
8. Warner, N.H., Gupta, S., Kim, J.-R., Lin, S.-Y.,
and Muller, J.-P., Retreat of a giant cataract in a
long-lived ( 3. 7–2.6Ga) martian outflow channel,
Geology 38(9):791–794, 2010.
9. Zegers, T.E., Oosthoek, J. H.P., Rossi, A. P., Lom,
J.E., and Schumacher, S., Melt and collapse of
buried water ice: an alternative hypothesis for the
formation of chaotic terrains on Mars, Earth and
Planetary Science Letters 297:496–504, 2010.
10. Spencer, W., Mars’ catastrophic past,
J. Creation 22( 2): 10–11, 2008.
11. Fassett, C.I. and Head III, J.W., The timing of
martian valley network activity: constraints from
buffered crater counting, Icarus 195: 61–89, 2008.
12. Rodriguez, J.A.P., Kargel, J.S., Baker, V.R.,
Gulick, V.C., Berman, D.C., Fairén, A.G.,
Linares, R., Zarroca, M., Yan, J., Miyamoto, H.,
and Glines, N., Martian outflow channels: how
did their course aquifers form, and why did they
drain so rapidly? ;cientific ;e;orts 5(13404):
13. Wang, C-y, Manga, M., and Wong, A., Floods
on Mars released from groundwater by impact,
Icarus 175:551–555, 2005.
14. Toon, O.B., Segura, T., and Zahnle, K., The
formation of martian river valleys by impacts,
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 38:
15. Oard, M.J., How many impact craters should
there be on the earth? J. Creation 23( 3):
16. Spencer, W., Impacts and Noah’s Flood—how
many and other issues, J. Creation 27( 1):