3. Rabbi ben Halafta, J., Seder Olam Rabbah: The Rabbinic View of Biblical
Chronology, Guggenheimer, H.W. (transl.), Rowman and Littlefield
Publishers, Lanham, MD, p. 3, 1998.
4. Josephus, Antiquity of the Jews, Thackeray, H. St. J. (transl.), Jewish
Antiquities, Books I–IV, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1. 6. 4.
5. Book of Jubilees, in Charles, R.H. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of
the Old Testament, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1913.
6. Fouts, D.M., Peleg in Gen. 10: 25, JETS
41( 1): 17–21, March 1998.
7. See Sarfati, J.D., The Genesis Account, Creation Book Publishers, Powder
Springs, GA, ch. 23–24, 2015; Sarfati, J.D., ‘In Peleg’s days, the earth was
divided’: What does this mean? creation.com/in-pelegs-days-the-earth-was-divided.
8. Fouts also suggests the traditional view may point to two aspects, one related
to the Babel scattering, the other to a separation between Peleg and Joktan.
9. John Calvin (1509–1564), Sermons on Genesis: Chapters 1–11 [from 1554];
Banner of Truth, Edinburgh, UK, p. 324, 1984.
10. Bede: The Reckoning of Time, Wallis, F. (transl.), Liverpool University Press,
Liverpool, UK, p. 164, 1999.
11. Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testament, published in two parts:
firstly, in 3 volumes on An Exposition of the Ne w Testament (1746–1748), and
secondly, in 6 volumes on An Exposition of the Old Testament (1748–1763).
Commentary on Genesis 10: 25 and 11: 8.
12. See, for instance, Sarfati, ref. 7, p. 652; Keil, C.F. and Delitzsch, F., Biblical
Commentary on the Old Testament 1:171, 176, 1857; and Leupold, H.C.,
Exposition of Genesis, 1:378, 1942.
13. Skinner, J., A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis, (2nd edn), ICC:
T and T Clark, Edinburgh, UK, p. 220, 1930.
14. Morris, J.D. and Johnson J.J.S., Rightly dividing the word about Peleg,
Presentation at CRS Conference, 10 July 2009.
15. One Jewish source from the 16th century, the midrash Sefer ha Yashar, also
suggests two events: a division of people, and later a division of the earth.
However, most Christian and Jewish sources consider it to be of questionable
origin, and therefore unreliable. Sefer haYashar, ch.7: 19 “These are the
generations of Shem; Shem begat Arpachshad and Arpachshad begat Shelach,
and Shelach begat Eber and to Eber were born two children, the name of one
was Peleg, for in his days the sons of men were divided, and in the latter days,
the earth was divided.” Edited by Parry, J.H., Published Parry and Company,
Salt Lake City, U T, 1887. Claimed first edition 1552, Naples, surviving printed
edition from Venice, 1625. See Jacobs, J. and Ochser, S., YASHAR, SEFER
HA-, Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. 12, pp. 588–589, 1906.
16. Often nip̄ ·lə·ḡāh is used with reference to water, but there is insufficient space
to discuss that here.
17. Cosner, L., Carter., R., Textual traditions and biblical chronology, J. Creation
29( 2): 99–105, 2015.
18. Whitcomb J.C. and Morris, H.M., The Genesis Flood, P and R Publishing, p.
19. Hodge, B., Tower of Babel, Master Books, Green Forest, AR, ch. 7, 2013.
20. Snelling AA. and Matthews, M., When Was the Ice Age in Biblical History?
Answers 6: 46–52, 2013.
21. Ussher, ref. 2.
22. Sarfati, ref. 7, p. 655.
23. Africanus, J., Extant Fragments of Five Books of Chronology of Julius
Africanus, VI–VIII; in: Schaff, P. (Ed.), Ante-Nicene Fathers (ANF), vol. 6,
T and T Clark, Edinburgh, UK, 1886–1890.
24. Augustine, ref. 2. He also thought the original language was Hebre w and this
was retained by the descendants of Eber.
25. Augustine suggests only 12 sons of Joktan; Augustine, ref. 2.
26. Augustine, ref. 2.
27. Josephus, ref. 4, 1. 6. 5; Augustine, City of God, NPNF, 16. 10.
28. Waddell, W.G, (trans.), The Fragments of Manetho, Loeb Classical Library
edition, Harvard University Press, appendix IV—The Book of Sôthis or The
Sôthic Cycle (from Syncellus), pp. 238–239, 1940.
29. Adler, W., Berossus, Manetho, and 1 Enoch in the World Chronicle of
Panodorus, vol. 76, no. 4, The Harvard Theological Review, Cambridge Uni.
Press, pp. 419–442, 1983.
30. Pierce, L., In the days of Peleg, Creation
22( 1): 46–59, 1999.
31. Jubilees 8: 8–11, “And in the sixth year [1567 AM] thereof, she bare him son,
and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of
Noah began to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called
his name Peleg. And it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee
[1569 AM] … [Noah] called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their
children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to
take in possession.” in Charles, R.H. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
of the Old Testament, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1913; also Segal. M.,
The Book of Jubilees: Rewritten Bible, Redaction, Ideology and Theology,
Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, Netherlands, p. 125, 2007.
32. Jubilees 10: 18, 20, 21, “And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year
in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife ... and she bare him a son
in the fourth year of this week [1628 AM], and he called his name Reu; for
he said: ‘Behold the children of men have become evil through the wicked
purpose of building for themselves a city and a tower in the land of Shinar.’
And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with
fire ... . And they built it: forty and three years [1645–1688 AM].”
33. VanderKam J.C. and Milik, J. T., The first Jubilees manuscript from Qumrall
Cave 4: A preliminary publication, J. Biblical Literature 110:243–270, 1991.
34. Shanks, H., Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls, Biblical Archaeology
Revie w, 29 June 1993; VanderKam, J.C., Book of Jubilees; in: Schiffman L. H.
and VanderKam J.C. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Oxford
University Press, UK, vol. I, p. 435, 2000.
35. For instance, Sarfati, J.D., Cainan of Luke 3: 36, J. Creation
12( 1): 39–40,
1998; and Pierce, L., Cainan in Luke 3:36: insight from Josephus, J. Creation
13( 2): 75–76, 1999.
36. Gill suggested that Josephus favoured the later date, but the comment above
suggests the earlier date.
37. Ussher, J., Annales Veteris Testamenti of Prima Mundi Origine, Dedducti: Una
Cum Rerum Asiaticarum et AEgyptiacarum Chronico, A Temporis Historici
Principio, Jacobo Usserio Armachano, Londini, MDCL (1650).
38. Ussher, ref. 2, p. 21.
39. Gill, ref. 11, Commentary on Genesis 11: 8 (Gill quotes, for instance, from
Elmacinus al-Majmù al-Mubarak (The blessed collection), pp. 1262–1268,
and Hottinger, J. H., Smegma Oriental, p. 267, 1658.) Anderson suggests ‘in his
days’ of Gen. 10: 25 refers to Peleg's life. Anderson, L., CRS 2016 Conference
Abstracts, The Peleg problem, part 1: when did the event described in Genesis
10: 25 occur? CRSQ
53( 1): 59–60, 2016.
40. Ussher, J., The Annals of the World, 49, p. 22. 1,903 years elapsed from this
time [1771 AM, 2234
BC] to the capture of Babylon by Alexander the Great.
This calculation and number of years was made according to astronomical
observations by Porphyry, as we find in Simplicius, in his second book, de
Coelo. This he affirms to have been transmitted into Greece from Babylon
by Chalisthenes at Aristotle’s request; Constantinus Manasses states that
the Egyptian state lasted 1,663 years. Counting backward from the time that
Cambyses, king of Persia, conquered Egypt, leads us to this period [1816 AM,
BC]. About this time Mizraim, the son of Ham, led his colony into Egypt.
See also Pierce, ref. 30.
41. For instance, Sarfati, ref. 35, and Pierce, ref. 35: insight from Josephus.
42. Cohen, M., The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of
Textual Criticism; in: HaMikrah V’anachnu (Ed.), Uriel Simon, HaMachon
L’Yahadut U’Machshava Bat-Z’mananu and Dvir, Tel-Aviv, 1979.
43. Schiffman, L., Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Illustrated Edition, Yale
University Press, New Haven, CT, 2007.
44. Peter Flint responds to a figure given by Emmanuel Tov of 47%, and suggests
less than half are properly proto-M T type, with the majority showing influence
from the SP or LXX. Flint, P., The biblical scrolls and the text of the Hebrew
Bible/Old Testament; in: VanderKam, J. and Flint, P., The Meaning of the Dead
Sea Scrolls: Their Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus,
and Christianity, Harper San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, p. 146, 2002.
Andrew Sibley works as a meteorologist in the UK.
He has a B.Sc. (Hons.) and completed an M.Sc. in
Environmental Decision Making in 2003 with the Open
University, and finished an M.Phil. in theology at a UK
university in 2012, which looked at the science and
theology of Intelligent Design. He is an occasional
speaker and writer with the Creation Science Movement
based in Portsmouth, England, and the author of
Restoring the Ethics of Creation.