believed to have formed during extension when the crust
was being pushed apart horizontally. The late date of MCCs,
mostly in the Cenozoic, was a surprise.
MCCS represent tremendous tectonic events. Scott Rugg
points out that they uplifted rapidly with the sliding of huge
blocks occurring rapidly late in the Flood.
57 Just like with
ophiolites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks (see
below), the catastrophism of the Cenozoic was tremendous,
which seems more like a Flood signature than a post-Flood
Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals, as well as high-pressure (HP) minerals, and microdiamonds have been
increasingly discovered on the earth’s surface over the
past 40 years or more.
58 These minerals have caused much
frustration to uniformitarian scientists because such UHP
minerals imply metamorphism at high pressures deep
down in the earth, but the minerals are now found in a low-pressure environment at the earth’s surface.
UHP minerals are believed to have originated
predominantly from continental crust, which is lighter
than ocean crust and the mantle. So, how does buoyant
continental crust sink to depths deep enough to form
UHP? Uniformitarian scientists used to say it could not
happen. But the UHP minerals have forced these scientists
to conclude that continental rocks must have been rapidly
forced downward to great depths and then rapidly exhumed
to the surface. Furthermore, the rocks often remained at
low temperature while descending into a much hotter
environment, implying rapid descent. UHP minerals must
have also ascended rapidly because a slow exhumation
should cause retrograde metamorphism and destroy the UHP
minerals by converting them back to low pressure forms.
Each new discovery of UHP minerals has pushed the
depth of descent farther downward, causing a predictable
cycle of uniformitarian disbelief followed by forced
59 Therefore, a paradigm change has been
underway in geology because of UHP minerals:
“The story of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism
(UHPM) is a confused mixture of surprising,
sometimes spectacular, discoveries and emotional
reactions. Surprisingly, the process has been a
repeating cycle of disbelief followed by confirmation,
with little evidence that the community response in a
given cycle has learned from previous cycles.”
Uniformitarian geologists have hypothesized that
continental collisions may account for the data, but the
depth of descent is overwhelming. How such radical vertical
tectonics can occur with continental collisions remains
“As a consequence, thermomechanical insights
inferred from P-T-t [pressure-temperature-time]
reconstruction and structural studies of high-pressure
terranes have relentlessly failed to reproduce the
trajectories and the velocity field of mass transport in
the crust during the entire orogenic [vertical tectonic]
period and, most importantly, show no clue to the basic
processes responsible for burial and rock exhumation
and their relation to the global velocity framework of
That is not all. An analysis of UHP minerals suggests
that some minerals had been driven down to depths of around
300 or 400 km and exhumed!
62,63 Ultrahigh-pressure minerals,
therefore, imply rapid sinking and uplift, unless they are the
result of asteroid impacts, which can also cause such ultrahigh-pressure minerals to form, as well as microdiamonds.
Ultrahigh-pressure minerals are commonly found in
Cenozoic rocks. UHP minerals in the Alps imply rapid
uplift from about 100 km depth.
64 Late Cenozoic ultrahigh-pressure rocks are found in eastern Papua New Guinea, in
a gneiss dome, also implying rapid exhumation from about
100 km depth.
65 High-pressure minerals from the mountains
of southeast Spain are believed to have been uplifted from
about 65 km in the late Cenozoic.
66 The ultrahigh-pressure
rocks in the Himalayas, implying uplift from below 90
km, also have a Cenozoic age.
67 Diamonds in rocks from
an intrusion in Japan indicate uplift of over 170 km.
is interesting that the rock is assumed to be scrapped off
and deformed material from the ocean as the Pacific Plate
subducted beneath Japan. This means that the origin of the
rock is believed to be from shallow depths, but the diamonds
say otherwise. So, the diamonds with the assumed uplift are
another uniformitarian mystery.
Catastrophic tectonics with sinking and uplifts of over
300 km would be expected during the Flood, since the
Flood was a time of intense vertical tectonics, and possibly
69 which may also have been a cause for
the UHP minerals and microdiamonds. However, one would
not expect such radical vertical tectonics after the Flood.
Evidence of major tectonics of various sorts occurred
during the deposition of the Cenozoic Erathem rocks. This
includes the many thousands of metres, sometimes over
ten thousand metres, of differential vertical tectonics; the
thousands of kilometres of horizontal plate movement,
including the collision of India with south-central Asia; the
emplacement of ophiolites; the development of metamorphic
core complexes; and the emplacement of ultrahigh-pressure