pluvial lakes dried out rapidly in the
Holocene. The difference in timing,
if real, could simply be due to the
difference in latitudes.
Cause of the African
Secular scientists really do not know
why the AHP occurred. It is assumed
the intertropical convergence zone
(ITCZ) that causes an east-west heavy
rain band and tropical forests through
central Africa somehow moved up to
600 km north. The ITCZ is related
to the current general circulation of
the atmosphere, and scientists do not
know how or why it could be farther
north during the AHP.
13, 14 Some models
claim modest success in moving the
ITCZ a little farther northward due
to Milankovitch fluctuations and
the increase in greenhouse gases.
One wonders how slight changes in
Earth radiation balance caused by
the Milankovitch mechanism15 and
an increase in carbon dioxide after
the Ice Age would produce an ITCZ
significantly farther north than today.
Carbon dioxide is significantly higher
today than right after the Ice Age, and
the ITCZ remains stable in its central
African location, since it is locked to
its average location by the general
circulation. Creation scientists do
not have an explanation for the AHP
either, except the post-Flood Ice Age
has more potential to explain it, with
much more precipitation caused by the
warm oceans after the Flood.
1. Oard, M.J., Frozen in Time: Woolly Mammoths,
the Ice Age, and the Biblical Key to Their
Secrets, Master Books, Green Forest, AR,
pp. 41–44, 2004.
2. Smith, G.I. and Street-Perrott, F. A., Pluvial lakes
in the western United States; in: Wright, Jr., H.E.
(Ed.), Late-Quaternary Environments of the
United States, University of Minnesota Press,
Minneapolis, MN, pp. 190–212, 1983.
3. Pachur, H.-J. and Kröpelin, S., Wadi Howar:
paleoclimatic evidence from an extinct river
system in the southeastern Sahara, Science 237:
4. Paillou, P., Schuster, M., Tooth, S. et al., Mapping
of the major paleodrainage system in eastern
Libya using orbital imaging radar: the Kufrah
River, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277:
5. Chorowicz, J. and Fabre, J., Organization
of drainage networks from space imagery in
the Tanezrouft plateau (Western Sahara):
implications for recent intracratonic deformations,
Geomorphology 21:139–151, 1997.
6. Hoelzmann, P., Kruse, H.-J. and Rottinger, F.,
Precipitation estimates for the eastern Saharan
palaeomonsoon based on a water balance model
of the West Nubian palaeolake basin, Global and
Planetary Change 26: 105–120, 2000.
7. Kröpelin, S. and Soulié-Märsche, I., Charophyte
remains from Wadi Howar as evidence for deep
mid-Holocene freshwater lakes in the eastern
Sahara of Northwest Sudan, Quaternary Research
8. Drake, N.A., Blench, R.M., Armitage, S.J.,
Bristow, C.S. and White, K.H., Ancient
watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara
explain the peopling of the desert, Proceedings
of the National Academy of Science
9. Wellard, J., The Great Sahara, E.P. Duggon &
Co., New York, NY, pp. 33–34, 1964.
10. Manning, K. and Timpson, A., The demographic
response to Holocene climate change in the
Sahara, Quaternary Science Reviews 101:
11. Lécuyer, C., Lézine, A.-M., Fourel, F. et al., I-n-Atei paleolake documents past environmental
changes in central Sahara at the time of the “Green
Sahara”: Charchola, carbon isotope and diatom
records, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
Palaeoecology 441:834–844, 2016.
12. Otto-Bliesner, B.L., Russell, J.M., Clark, P.U. et
al., Coherent changes of southeastern equatorial
and northern African rainfall during the last
deglaciation, Science 346:1223–1227, 2014.
13. Braconnot, P., Joussaume, S., de Noblet, N.
and Ramstein, G., Mid-Holocene and Last
Glacial Maximum African monsoon changes
as simulated within the Paleoclimate Modelling
Intercomparison Project, Global and Planetary
Change 26: 51–66, 2000.
14. Notaro, M., Wang, Y., Liu, Z., Gallimore,
R. and Levis, S., Combined statistical and
dynamical assessment of simulated vegetation-rainfall interactions in North Africa during the
mid-Holocene, Global Change Biology 14:
15. Oard, M.J., The Frozen Record: Examining the
Ice Core History of the Greenland and Antarctic
Ice Sheets, Institute for Creation Research, Dallas,
16. Oard, ref. 1, pp. 1–217.
to form free-
Michael J. Oard
Free-standing arches are the most amazing features. Sometimes an
arch is long and high with just a thin
strip of rock connected at the top,
such as Landscape Arch in Arches
National Park, Utah, USA (figure 1).
It is the second-longest arch in the
world and spans 88 m (290 ft). Arches
and natural bridges are similar, but a
natural bridge is one in which a flow
of water, like a stream, is obviously
associated with its origin.
1 There is
no obvious stream associated with an
arch. Instead arches are commonly
found on ridges or the sides of a ridge.
Origin of arches enigmatic
The conventional explanation of
how rock arches formed requires
long periods of time of slow erosion
by physical and chemical weathering.
To form an arch, significant amounts
of the rock must weather and erode
without eroding the arch itself.
Geologists estimate that it would
have taken 70,000 years of water,
frost, and wind opera ting in a dry
climate to form the isolated Delicate
Arch in Arches National Park.
2 It is
important to note free-standing arches
are not forming today but are being
destroyed, as evidenced by the collapse
of Wall Arch in Arches National
3 This presents a challenge for
a uniformitarian explanation of their
“Arch formation cannot be due
solely to weathering and erosion,
however, because these processes
are not restricted to the sites of