5. Holdgate, G.R., Cartwright, I., Blackburn, D.L. et al., The middle Miocene
Yallourn coal seam—the last coal in Australia, International J. Coal Geology 70:
6. Oard, M. J. and H. Giesecke, Polystrate fossils require rapid deposition,
Creation Research Society Quarterly
43( 4):232–240, 2007.
7. Oard, M.J., (ebook). The Genesis Flood and Floating Log Mats: Solving
Geological Riddles, Creation Book Publishers, Powder Springs, GA, 2014;
8. Girard, V., Schmidt, A.R., Saint Martin, S. et al., Evidence for marine microfossils
from amber, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
9. Girard, V., Saint Martin, S., Saint Martin, J.-P. et al., Exceptional preservation
of marine diatoms in upper Albian amber, Geology
37( 1): 83–86, 2009.
10. Oard, M. J., Marine fossils in amber suggest the Flood log-mat model, J. Creation
24( 1): 9–10, 2010; http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j24_1/j24_1_9-10.pdf.
11. Girard et al., ref. 8, p. 17426.
12. Antoine, P.-O., Franceschi, D.D., Flynn, J.J. et al., Amber from western
Amazonia reveals neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
103( 37):13595–13600, 2006.
13. Martinez-Declòs, X., Briggs, D.E.G. and Peñalver, E., Taphonomy of
insects in carbonates and amber. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
Palaeoecology 203: 19–64, 2004.
14. Grimaldi, D. and Engel, M. S., The Evolution of Insects, Cambridge University
Press, New York, N Y, 2005.
15. Poinar, Jr., G.O., Life in Amber, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, pp.
16. Lambert, J.B., Johnson, S.C., Poinar, Jr., G.O. and Frye, J.S., Recent and fossil
resins from New Zealand and Australia, Geoarchaeology
8( 2):141–155, 1993.
17. McKellar, R.C., Wolfe, A.P., Tappert, R. and Muehlenbachs, K., Correlation
of Grassy Lake and Cedar Lake ambers using infrared spectroscopy,
stable isotopes, and palaeoentomology, Canadian J. Earth Sciences 45:
18. Martinez-Declòs et al., ref. 13, p. 51.
19. Lambert, J.B. and Poinar, Jr., G.O., Amber: the organic gemstone, Accounts
of Chemical Research
35( 8):628–636, 2002.
20. Grimaldi and Engel, ref. 14, p. 57.
21. Holt, ref. 2, p. 157.
22. Oard, M.J. and Klevberg, P., Green River Formation very likely did not form
in a postdiluvial lake, Answers Research J. 1: 99–107, 2008.
23. Bartis, J. T., La Tourrette, T., Dixon, L. et al., RAND Corporation oil shale
development in the United States prospects and policy issues, MG-414-NETL,
24. Holt, ref. 2, p. 158.
25. Snelling, A.A., Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation & the Flood,
Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, TX, pp. 965–976, 2009.
26. Holt, ref. 2, p. 154.
27. Holt, ref. 2, pp. 160–161.
28. Brasier, M.D., Microfossils, George Allen and Unwin, London, UK, pp. 39–44,
29. Brasier, ref. 28, p. 43.
30. Brand, L.R., Esperante, R., Chadwick, A.V. et al., Fossil whale preservation
implies high diatom accumulation rate in the Miocene-Pliocene Pisco
Formation of Peru, Geology
32( 2):165–168, 2004.
31. Snelling, ref. 25, p. 926.
32. Snelling, A.A., The whale fossil in diatomite, Lompoc, California, J. Creation
33. Oard, M.J., Dead whales: telling tales? Creation
26( 4): 10–14, 2004.
34. Snelling, A. A., Can Flood geology explain thick chalk beds? J. Creation
11–15, 1994; creation.com/can-flood-geology-explain-thick-chalk-beds.
35. Oard, M.J., Jurassic mammals—more surprisingly diverse, J. Creation
36. Werner, C., Evolution: The Grand Experiment Vol. 2: Living Fossils, New
Leaf Press, Green Forest, AR, pp. 169–182, 2008.
37. Behrensmeyer, A.K., Bonebeds through time; in: Rogers, R. R., Eberth, D. A.
and Fiorillo, A.R. (Eds.), Bonebeds: Genesis, Analysis, and Paleobiological
Significance, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p. 72, 2006.
38. Wise, K.P., Faith, Form, and Time: What the Bible Teaches and Science
Confirms about Creation and the Age of the Universe, Broadman & Holman
Publishers, Nashville, TN, pp. 218–219, 2002.
39. Part of this extinction timing is due to circular reasoning in that when a
titanothere fossil is found in the rocks, it is automatically dated no older than
40. Wise, K.P. and Richardson, S.A., Something from Nothing: Understanding
What You Believe about Creation and Why, Broadman & Holman Publishers,
Nashville, TN, p. 173, 2004
41. Janis, C.M., Damuth, J. and Theodor, J.M., The origins and evolution of
the North American grassland biome: the story from the hoofed mammals,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177:183–198, 2002.
42. Janis and Theodor, ref. 41, pp. 184–185.
Michael J. Oard has an M.S. in atmospheric science
from the University of Washington and is now retired
after working as a meteorologist with the US National
Weather Service in Montana for 30 years. He is the
author of Frozen in Time, Ancient Ice Ages or Gigantic
Submarine Landslides?, Flood by Design, Dinosaur
Challenges and Mysteries, and Exploring Geology
with Mr. Hibb. He serves on the board of the Creation