have to occur largely before the Ice Age, which is unlikely
since all the conditions for the Ice Age to start were in
place right after the Flood. Considering all the thick layers
of Tertiary strata plus the erosion of the top of the strata,
there must have been countless post-Flood catastrophes of
How do mammal graveyards form after the Flood?
One would expect that in post-Flood catastrophes many
mammals would be buried, but it seems unlikely that
mammals would be concentrated into large graveyards
such as those observed in Tertiary deposits. A recent book
on bonebeds in sedimentary rock lists 25% of them in
The Tertiary graveyard with the most concentrated
mammals is likely that at Agate Springs in western
Nebraska, USA. It is now Agate Fossil Beds National
Monument and contains a wide variety of extinct Miocene
mammals, mostly concentrated within layers in University
and Carnegie Hills. Figure 4 shows a sample of the
concentrated bones. There are supposed to be over 9,000
animals entombed here.
It would probably not be difficult to concentrate a small
number of mammals into one graveyard during post-Flood
catastrophes. However the Flood would better explain a
large number at one location, such as those concentrated
at Agate Springs.
How would the Tertiary order of mammals be explained?
According to the uniformitarian geological column, the
Tertiary has a certain order of mammals that supposedly
evolved and went extinct. The following arguments can
also be made with other organisms in the Tertiary, but the
discussion will focus on mammals. Those who believe the
Tertiary represents a series of post-Flood catastrophes seem
to believe this mammal fossil order.
38 So, this ‘fossil order’
Figure 4. Mammal graveyard depiction at Agate Fossil Beds National Monument Visitors Center, western Nebraska, USA