organisms. The amber must still end up in a marine, nonoxidizing environment.
Logs mats floating in the Flood water potentially can
account for the amber and the organisms in amber.
of logs would likely have been floating on the Flood water
and coalescing into mats after being uprooted during the
onset of the Flood. These logs would be damaged by violent
contact with other logs or rocks. Lambert and Poinar stated:
“Numerous genera of plants all over the globe spontaneously
or as the result of trauma produce sticky substances that
have been termed resins [emphasis added].”
19 Trauma in
today’s environment can be caused by storm damage, fires,
and outbreaks of wood-boring insects.
20 The greater trauma
of Flood-induced damage would result in abundant resin
exuded from the floating logs.
Since a large amount of amber comes from the Tertiary,
even from the late Tertiary, amber seems best explained by
the Flood and not by post-Flood catastrophism. Amber is a
strong indication that the Flood/post-Flood boundary is in
the very late Cenozoic, at least in those areas that contain
the Miocene amber.
Oil and natural gas
Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas. They are the
altered remains of buried marine and terrestrial organisms.
Oil and natural gas represent only about 10% of the total
carbon content in all fossil fuels; coal contains the largest
amount of carbon by far. Oil is believed to form when burial
temperatures of organic matter are raised to about 60–175°C,
while natural gas probably forms between temperatures of
175 and 315°C.
Figure 3 shows the source rock for fossil fuels by period.
Despite figure 3 being an estimate that could change with
more exploration, it remains useful for this analysis. Figure 3
shows that there are no significant fossil fuels sourced from
Quaternary rocks, which is mostly considered post-Flood,
while substantial amounts are sourced from Tertiary and late
Mesozoic rocks. It is estimated that between 15.2% and 19%
of crude oil comes from Tertiary source rocks.
An example of the great amount of oil from Cenozoic
(Tertiary) sedimentary rock comes from the Green River
Formation of Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado.
formation is thought to have been deposited in a post-Flood
lake by some creation scientists, and there is some evidence
supporting this position, but there are several other features
that point to a Flood origin. For example, it contains a huge
amount of oil within the shale. It is estimated that there are
1. 2 to 1. 8 trillion barrels of oil, only 800 billion considered
recoverable, in the Green River Formation. The recoverable
oil is three times the proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia and
can supply the oil needs of the United States for 100 years.
Other Cenozoic sources of oil include the Orinoco oil belt
of northern Venezuela and the Pear Springs, Asphalt Ridge,
Hill Creek, and Sunnyside deposits in Utah.
The vast quantity of fossil fuels, along with the hundreds
of billions of fossils, argues for the burial of a huge amount
of organisms in a large catastrophe, such as the Genesis
Flood. It could be possible that local or regional mass
wasting catastrophes could bury enough organisms to
produce small quantities of oil and natural gas, but could
they produce the amount of oil and gas generated in the
Tertiary? It is possible that oil and natural gas could be
abiogenic or partly abiogenic, but this is uncertain for many
It would be difficult to account for the oil and natural
gas that developed just in the Tertiary by postulated local to
regional post-Flood catastrophes. This would especially be
the case if oil is mostly produced from the remains of marine
algae, as many petroleum geologists
believe, because mass wasting
would have to have occurred in
the oceans or been carried into the
oceans from the land. The burial of
the tremendous amount of organic
material to form the oil and natural
gas in the Tertiary would require
a very large cataclysm, consistent
with the Flood but not with
postulated post-Flood catastrophes.
Holt summarizes the argument well:
“If one ignores the organic
content of sediments, except for
fossil fuels, placing the Flood/
post-Flood other than late in the
Cainozoic [Cenozoic] still creates
severe difficulties for post-Flood
Quaternary TertiaryCretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian CarboniferousDevonian Ordovician Silurian Cambrian
Figure 3. Distribution of coal, oil, and gas source rocks (from Holt2 redrawn by Mrs Melanie Richard)